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Bio AS Carbohydrates

Biological Molecules 1st Topic: Carbohydrates

Monomers The small units from which larger molecules are made.
Polymers Molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together.
Monosaccharides, Amino Acids and Nucleotides All examples of monomers.
Condensation Reaction Joins two molecules together with the formation of a chemical bond and involves the elimination of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis Reaction Breaks a chemical bond between two molecules and involves the use of a water molecule.
Monosaccharides The monomers from which larger carbohydrates are made. Glucose, Galactose and Fructose are common monosaccharides.
Condensation reaction between two monosaccharides Forms a Glycosidic Bond.
Disaccharides Formed by the condensation of two monosaccharides.
Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose All disaccharides formed by the condensation of alpha-glucose and another molecule: another alpha-glucose (Maltose), fructose (Sucrose) and galactose (Lactose).
a-glucose and B-glucose The two isomers of glucose that have different structures: a-glucose's OH group on C1 is on the bottom, whereas B-glucose's OH group on C1 is on top.
Polysaccharides Formed by the condensation of many glucose units: come in the form of Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose (with Starch and Glycogen being made out of a-glucose units, and Cellulose being made out of B-glucose units).
Starch Found in plants, seeds and storage organs: it's main role is to be an energy store. It is insoluble (doesn't affect water potential) and water is not drawn in by osmosis, it's compact and easy and ready to form a-glucose when hydrolysed.
Glycogen Found in animal cells only. It has a similar structure to Starch but has shorter chains and therefore is highly branched, more so than Starch. It is an important carb store and important for humans with a high metabolic/respiratory rate.
Cellulose Made from B-glucose. Doesn't have the coiled structure of S and G, rather parallel, un-branched chains that allow H bonds to form cross-links. H bonds don't add much strength, but with many of them, a collective strength is formed adding rigidity.
Benedict's Reagent for Reducing and Non-Reducing Sugars Reducing Sugars positive outcome = Blue to Orange/Red/Brown; Non-Reducing Sugars positive outcome = Blue to Blue first, then Blue to Orange/Red/Brown.
Reducing Sugars Test Involves: Benedict's Reagent, Food Sample (liquefied or ground in water), Water Bath. Solution in test tube will go from colour of sample, to blue, to (if positive) Orange/Red/Brown.
Non-Reducing Sugars Test Involves: Benedict's Reagent, Food Sample (liquefied or ground in water), Water Bath, Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, pH paper. Solution will go from sample, to blue, stay blue to Orange/Red/Brown.
Created by: nkpojp



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