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MrsVanDyke Chapter12

Social Psychology

Social Psychology Branch of psychology that studies the effect of social variables and cognitions on individual behavior and social interactions
Social Context Combination of people, the activities and interactions among people, the setting in which behavior occurs, and the expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting
Situationism View that environmental conditions influence people's behavior as much as or more than their personal dispositions do
Social Role One of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting or group
Script Cluster of knowledge about the sequences of events and actiosn expected to occur in a particular setting
Social Norms Group's expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its member's attitudes and behaviors
Asch Effect Form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgements
Conformity Tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, and opinions of other members of a group
Diffusion of Responsibility Dilution or weakening of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
Social Reality Individual's subjective interpretation of other people and of relationships with them
Reward Theory of Attraction Social-learning view that says we like best those who give us maximum rewards at minimum cost
Principle of Proximity Notion that people at work will make more friends among those who are nearby with who they have the most contact. Proximity means nearness
Similarity Principle Notion that people are attracted to those who are most similar to themselves
Matching Hypothesis the Prediction that most people will find friends and mates that are perceived to be of about their same level of attractiveness
Expectancy-Value Theory Theory in social psychology that people decide whether to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectation of success in establishing the relationship
Cognitive Dissonance Highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) Tendency to emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressures. The FAE is more common in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic culture
Self-Serving Bias Attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure
Prejudice Negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
Discrimination Negative action toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
In-Group Group with which an individual identifies
Social Distance Perceived difference or similarity between oneself and another person
Out-Group Outside the group with which an individual identifies
Scapegoating Blaming an innocent person or a group for one's own troubles
Social Facilitation Increase in an individual's performance because of being in a group
Social Loafing Decrease in performance because of being in a group
Deindividuation Occurs when group members lose their sense of personal identity and responsibility and the group "assumes" responsibility for their behavior
Group Polarization When individuals in a group have similar, though not identical, views, their opinions become more extreme
Groupthink Excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members
Romantic Love Temporary and highly emotional condition based on infatuation and sexual desire
Triangular Theory of Love Theory that describes various kids of love in terms of three components: passion(erotic attraction); intimacy (sharing feelings and confidences); and commitment (dedication to putting htis relationship first in one's life)
Violence and Aggression Terms that refer to behavior that is intended to cause harm
Cohesiveness Solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership
Mutual Independence Shared sense that individuals or groups need each other in order to achieve common goals
Terrorism Use of violent, unpredictable acts by a small group against a larger group for political, economic, or religious goals.
Created by: MrsVanDyke
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