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Music Appreciation

TermDefinition
melody, harmony, rhythm three elements of music
melody and rhythm move horizontally
harmony move vertically
phrase musical sentence
cadence a resting place in music
pianoforte the name of the keyboard in the classroom
soft loud pianoforte means
Italian musical terms are in the ________ language
grave, andente two words which mean slow
allegro, presto two words for fast
woodwind, brass, string, percussion four categories of instruments
clarinet, bassoon, flute, piccolo woodwind instruments
trumpet, french horn, tuba, trombone brass instruments
violin, viola, cello, bass string instruments
cymbal, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, kettledrum percussion instruments
middle ages, renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic, 20th century periods of western civilization in order
quintet ensemble with 5 people
trio ensemble with 3 people
quartet ensemble with 4 people
monophonic music for one voice or parts
polyphonic music for two or more voices or parts
homophonic a melody supported by instrumental accompaniment
melody succession of single pitches that we hear as a recognizable whole
range the distance between the lowest and highest notes
contour melody's overall shape as it turns upward or downward or remains static
climax the high point in a melodic line
rhythm the movement of music in time
duple meter alternates a strong downbeat with a weak beat
triple meter basic pattern with three beats to a measure - one strong beat and two weak ones
quadruple meter contains four beats to the measure with a primary accent on the first beat and a secondary accent on the third
harmony the simultaneous combination of sounds
chromatic scale twelve half steps that make up the octave
major scale the most familiar sequence of pitches
minor scale sounds quite unusual, has a lowered, or flattened third note
texture melodic lines may be thought of as the various threads that make up this musical fabric
monophony simple texture using a single voice
polyphony describes a texture in which two or more different melodic lines are combined
homophony a single voice takes over the melodic interest, while the accompanying lines are subordinate
binary form based on a statement and a departure, without a return to the opening section (two-part)
ternary form extends the idea of statement and departure by bringing back the first section (three-part)
tempo rate of speed of the music
dynamics denote the volume at which music is played
crescendo growing louder
decrescendo growing softer
voice the oldest instrument
aerophones produce sound by using air
chordophones produce sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points
idiopohones produce sound from the substance itself
membranophones drum-type instruments that are sounded from tightly stretched membranes
in the chapel meaning of a cappella
harpsichord, pipe organ earliest keyboard instruments
sacred music music for religious purposes
secular music music for entertainment
genre a more general term that suggests something of the overall character of the work as well as its function
opus number cataloguing system to identify a musical work/piece
oral transmission the preservation of music without the aid of written notation
humanism the nude human form, denied or covered for centuries, was revealed as a thing of beauty and used for anatomical study
1818 Florence established
1830 UNA established
monasteries members of these religious communities who preserved the learning of the ancient world and transmitted it, through their manuscripts, to later European scholars
melismatic up to five or six notes sung to a syllable
responsorial practice of group repetition of a leader's text-music phrase has its roots in ancient Jewish practice
pavane, saltarello, ronde dance types
madrigal an aristocratic form of poetry and music that flourished at the Italian courts as a favorite diversion of cultivated amateurs
virtuosity remarkable technical skill
figured bass numeral put above or below the bass note by the composer to indicate the chord required
basso continuo provided a foundation over which a vocal or instrumental melody could unfold
major-minor tonality one of the most significant changes in all music history
castrato a male singer who was castrated during boyhood in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life
improvisation played a significant role in Baroque music
opera a large-scale drama that is sung
chorales weekly hymns created by Luther and his followers
Lutheran cantata the resulting elaboration-of-chorale, a sort of musical sermon on the original hymn
mass service in the Catholic church
1750-1825 Baroque period
oratorio one of the great Baroque sacred vocal forms, descended from the religious play-with-music of the Counter-Reformation
Handel wrote Messiah
da capo aria the composer usually did not write out the third verse since it duplicated the first, allowing the star singer the opportunity to ornament or elaborate the third part on the fly
suite a group of short dances performed by a diverse array of instruments
Vivaldi wrote The Four Seasons
Handel wrote the Water Music
subject main theme of a song
fugue a contrapuntal composition in which a single theme pervades the entire fabric, entering in one voice and then in another
Created by: pace_sauce