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Effects on Brainstem: Drugs suppress sympathetic outflow to heart and blood vessels. DC HR, contractility, Vasodilation.
Dilation of arterioles reduces Vascular resistance
Dilation of veins reduces Venous blood flow to the heart
Effects on Sympathetic Ganglia Reduces sympathetic stimulation to heart and blood vessels
Effects on terminals of Adrenergic Nerves: Decreases norepinephrine release from adrenergic nerves- decreased stimulation of sympathetic stimulation.
Effects of Beta1-Adrenergic Receptors on the heart Blockage of beta 1 prevents sympathetic stimulation to the heart.
Effects of Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors on blood vessels Blockage of Alpha 1 promotes dilation of arterioles and veins.
Effects of Vascular Smooth Muscle Acts directly on vascular smooth muscle causing relaxation.
Effects of Renal Tubules Acts on renal tubules to promote salt and water excretion- Decreases blood volume.
Effects of Beta1 receptors on Juxtaglomerular Cells Blockage of this suppresses renin release and angiotension 2-peripheral/renal vasodilation, suppression of aldosterone-mediated volume expansion.
Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme: Inhibits ACE suppressing formation of angiotensin 2.
Angiotensin 2 Receptors: Blockage of these receptors prevents action of angiotensin 2.
Effects of Aldosterone Receptors: Blockage of this promotes excretion of sodium and water.
What is Renal Regulation? Result of lower GFR, retention of Na, Cl, and H20.-- increased volume, cardiac output and BP.
What is a diuretic? Drugs that increases urine output. Mainstay of antihypertensive therapy, can be used alone or to enhance effects of HTN drugs.
What does diuretics treat? HTN and mobilization of edematous fluid- associated with Heart Failure, cirrhosis and kidney failure.
What do sympatholytic (antidiuretic drugs) do? Suppress influence of the SNS on the heart, blood vessels, and other structures. Widely used in HTN.