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Parasympathetic/Symp

Pharmacology

TermDefinition
Beta 1 consists of: increased <3 rate, force of contraction, increased AV conduction velocity.
Beta 1 consists of: Release of Renin from the Kidneys.
Beta 2 consists of: Heart, lungs, skeletal muscle, dilation of arterioles&Bronchi. Relaxation of uterus, liver and enhanced contrac. skeletal muscle.
Dopamine Consists of: Dilation of the kidney vasculature.
Alpha 2 consists of Presynaptic nerve terminals- inhibition of transmitter release.
Alpha 1 consists of: Increased pupil size, constrict of arterioles/veins, skin, viscera, mucous memb, Ejaculation of sex organs, prostatic capsule, bladder.
Nicotinic N Stimulation of Parasympathetic/Sympathetic postganglion nerves&release of epi from adrenal medulla.
Nicotinic M Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
Neuropharmacology The study of drugs that alter processes controlled by nervous system. 2 Categories: Peripheral & Central
What are the steps in the post synaptic transmission? Synthesis, Storage, Release, Receptor Binding, Termination.
The more types of receptors work with: The greater our chances of producing selective drug effects.
Autonomic Nervous System: Regulation of heart, Secretory glands, and smooth muscle. All are shared between Sympathetic/Parasym. nervous systems.
In many organs that receive DUAL INNERVATION, the innervation of these Sympathetic Nerves: Opposes that of parasympathetic divisions.
But, In SOME organs, the effects are complementary
The baroreceptor reflex controls Blood Pressure
Autonomic Tone is the Steady day-day influence exerted by ANS on a particular organ/system.
With Dual innervation, either the SNS or PSNS provides: Most control or the predominant tone of that organ.
PSNS is known as The system of rest and digestion. Mainly conserves energy&restore body resources of the organism.
SNS mobilizes the organism during emergencies and stress situations. Fight/Flight.
In the Somatic Motor System, there is only one neuron in the pathway from the spinal cord to the muscles.
What is the transmitter of PNS? Acetylcholine.
What is acetylcholine released by? All preganglionic neurons of PSNS, SNS, All postgang. neurons of PSNS, all motor neurons of skele. sys. and most postgang. neurons of SNS that go 2 sweat glands.
What is norepinephrine released by? all postganglionic neurons of SNS (except sweat glands)
What is norepinephrine? The transmitter released by the adrenal medulla.
What could dopamine serve as? PNS transmitter.
Cholinergic is the receptorthat Mediates responses to ACH. Subtypes: Nicotinic N, M & Muscarinic.
Adrenergic receptors mediate Responses to Epinephrine to Norepinephrine. Subtypes: Alpha1/2, Beta 1/2
Dopamine receptors are considered Adrenergic, but don't respond epinephrine/norepi. But respond to dopamine.
What is dopamine? A neurotransmitter found in the CNS.
Epinephrine can activate All alpha/beta receptors, but not dopamine.
Norepinephrine can activate Alpha1/2, and beta 1.. but not beta 2 or dopamine.
Dopamine can activate alpha/beta 1 and dopamine
Epinephrine is the only transmitter that can activate Beta 2
Epinephrine is released from the ____, to prepare for flight/fight. Adrenal Medulla.
The responses of beta 2 are: Fight or Flight responses.
What is Acetylcholine destroyed by? Acetyl cholinesterase and degrades into acetate and choline.
Epinephrine synthesis occurs in the Adrenal Medulla.
What is a local anesthetic? Drugs that suppress pain by blocking impulse conduction along axons.
IV Regional Anesthesia: Used to anesthetize the extremities (Hands, feet, legs and arms)
Epidural Anesthesia: Injecting into the epidural space, bolus or infusion, blocks nerves in the paravertebral area.
Spinal Anesthesia: Injecting into the subarachnoid space, can cause hypotension, fecal/urinary incontinence, or retention.
Nerve Block Anesthesia: Injection into or near the nerves that supply the surgical field but at a site distant from the field itself.
Surface Anesthesia: Application to skin/mucous membrane, Lidocaine, tetracaine, cocaine is most common.
Procaine (Novocain) Prototype of esters, ineffective topically(injected), readily absorbed, allergies, rare in dentistry.
Lidocaine Prototype of amides, widely used, administered topically/injected, allergies rare, can treat dysrhythmias.
Cocaine First discovered, ester, effects on Sympathetic/CNS, Last about 1 hr. Common in ENT. Causes vasoconstriction/tachycardia, fatal dysrhythmias
How do neurons regulate other cells? Conduction of action pot. along axon of neuron, release of neurotransmitter molecules fr axon of neuron, binding of transmitter molecules to receptors on postsynaptic cell
A drug can alter one of two basic neuronal activities: Axonal conduction; not very selective (local anesthetic) or Synaptic transmission;highly selective
The impact of a drug on a neuronally regulated process is dependent upon the ability of that drug to directly or indirectly influence receptor activity on target cells.
To understand any particular peripheral nervous system drug you need 3 types or information Type of receptor, which the drug acts. Normal response activation of those receptors. What the drug does to the receptor function.