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WRH - Part 1b

Menstruation

QuestionAnswer
The ovarian cycle consists of two phases, the ___, which is variable, and the ___, which lasts 14 days. - follicular phase - luteal phase
In the follicular phase (ovarian cycle) and the proliferation phase (uterine cycle), ___ is dominant. estrogen
In the luteal phase (ovarian cycle) and the secretory phase (uterine cycle), ___ is dominant followed by a moderate amount of ___. - progesterone - estrogen
What is gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)? What is its function? - a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus - once produced, GnRH moves through the bloodstream to the pituitary gland - there, it binds to certain receptors, which signals the pituitary gland to create LH and FSH
What is leptin? What is its function regarding menarche? - a hormone produced by fat cells - regulates body fat - stimulates hypothalamus to release GnRH and thus trigger puberty
ovulation the part in the menstrual cycle (day 16) where a mature ovarian follicle discharges an egg - caused by LH surge
menses - takes place around the first 5 days of the cycle - characterized by a fall in estrogen and progesterone causing the release of prostaglandins from the uterus - (prostaglandins cause vasoconstriction of endometrial vessels)
menarche the first occurrence of menstruation
primary dysmenorrhea - severe, frequent cramping during menstruation with NO demonstrable cause - more common in young women
secondary dysmenorrhea - menstrual-related pain that accompanies another medical condition (such as adenomyosis, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, or uterine fibroids) - more common in older women
endometriosis - AKA retrograde menstruation - tissue that looks like and acts like endometrial tissue but it grows outside the uterus - most common in women ages 30-40 - treatment includes hormones or surgery
uterine fibroids noncancerous growths that grow on the walls of the uterus
menorrhagia - heavy bleeding during menstruation - excessive when the person says it is - caused by hormonal imbalances, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and some medications
primary amenorrhea - failure of menstruation to occur at puberty (usually by age 16) - can be caused by anatomical, genetic, enzymatic, or psychological issues
secondary amenorrhea - cessation of menstruation after it has once been established at puberty - can be caused by pregnancy, lactation, contraceptives, menopause, PCOS, anorexia, etc.
Explain working class women's experiences with menarche and menstruation. - lived in close quarters - more intergenerational contact - less emphasis on hygiene - less money to spend on dedicated products - lots of girls and young women in the dark about what to expect, since these topics weren't talked about
Explain Post-WWI (1918) women's experiences with menarche and menstruation. - heightened sensitivity to STD problems b/c of soldiers' unprotected sex overseas - caused the moral health / social hygiene movement (all aspects of sexuality were sanitized) - girls and young women started to learn sex ed in school/programs
Explain 1920-1999 women's experiences with menarche and menstruation. - rise of "sanitary" products - idea of the "inadequate mother" - info about mens. firmly in commercial realm (30s-40s texts from companies used in schools) - 50s-60s, ads created & enforced insecurities in young women - 40s-, less personal advice
Explain menstrual product advertising. - ads contributed to perpetuation of silence and shame surrounding mens., - female body is dirty and shameful when mens. - must not get caught mens. - manage body every day - use all available products - REINFORCES INSECURITIES
Explain medical, social, and political controversies surrounding premenstrual syndrome. - viewed as clearly defined disorder, despite lack of evidence, conflicting and numerous symptoms - pharmaceutical industry has economic stake in perpetuating the idea of PMS - some women use PMS for validation of stress/depression
[theoretical approach to study PMS] What is the biomedical model? - mens. cycle hormonal fluctuations result in normal mood changes - abnormal/excessive hormone levels cause abnormal moods
[theoretical approach to study PMS] What is the psychosomatic model? - something about women's temperment or psychology causes intensification of cyclical mood changes - symptoms only occur among women who are: 'experiencing conflict with female role, denying femininity, neurotic, or stressed'
[theoretical approach to study PMS] What is the social psychological model? - cyclical hormonal changes related to cyclical changes in arousal (which are assoc. with subjective emotional exp.s) - neutral arousal becomes labeled subjectively; depends on cultural beliefs and stereotypes - external factors to women's distress
[theoretical approach to study PMS] What is the radical feminist model? - women not dysfunctional - PMS a medicalization of any behavior by women that is intolerable w/in a patriarchal society - rational women's anger/depression inconvenient to patriarchal society; threatens status quo - PMS a social construction
Created by: jessica.gvc