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Geology Exam 1

Geology The study of the Earth
Physical geology The study of the Earth's materials and processes.
What is Geology's economical importance? Allows production of natural resources, prevents hazards, involves engineering and focuses on resource sustainability.
Rock An aggregate of minerals.
Mineral A naturally occuring, inorganic crystalline solid that has definite physical and chemical properties.
What do tectonic plates ride on? Lithosphere
How are tectonic plates affected by what cells? Pulled apart by convection cells.
Alfred Wegener Proposed the theory of the continental drift and the supercontinent Pangea.
Chemical Bonds Result of electrical forces.
Ionic Bonds Transfer electrons.
Metallic Bonds Resemble a sea of electrons.
Covalent Bonds Share electrons.
Van der waal bonds Asymmetrical bonds; Example of a mineral with this bond is Muscovite.
Convergent plate boundaries This occurs when two crustal plates are moving together and one plate subsides under the other one.
What are the three types of convergent boundaries? Oceanic-Oceanic (more dense), Oceanic-Continental (Oceanic subduct; more dense), Continental-Continental (builds mountains).
How old is the Earth? 4.6 Billion years old
How old is the universe? 13.8 Billion years old
Supporting evidence for continental drift Continental fit, similar rock sequences, glacial evidence and fossil evidence.
How does Erosion occur? When sediments are transported by wind, water and ice. These sediments are then deposited which means they come to rest somewhere.
How do divergent plate boundaries occur? Two crustal plates are moving apart, creating new lithosphere. Ex: spreading ridge
Driving forces of plate tectonics Mantle convection, ridge push and slab pull.
When does a hot spot occur? When a mantle plume is stationary under a moving plate and when this happens over time it forms a aseismic ridge.
Clasts Individual fragments that can be seen with the naked eye.
Matrix The fine grained material that fills the space between clasts.
Cement The crystalline material added to the rock to hold the clast and matrix together.
What can't be split into other substances? Elements
Atom Smallest particle that still retains the element's properties.
Diaphaneity The amount of light a substance can transmit.
What do Sulfides contain? Sulfur
What do Halides contain? Fluorine and Chlorine
What happened when the Earth formed? Coalesced into stratified layers with the densest minerals in the center.
Terrestrial planets Small planets composed of rock and metallic elements (Iron and Nickel). Ex: Earth
Jovian planets Big planets made of rocky cores that are composed of mostly hydrogen. Ex: Jupiter
Moh's Scale of Hardness (Small to Large) Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, Diamond.
What is Earth's inner core made of? Solid Iron and Nickel
What is Earth's outer core made of? Liquid material
Tenacity A minerals resistance to breaking or deforming.
Specific gravity The ratio of the density of an object to the density of water.
What are the seven major plates? Eurasian, Indian-Australian, Antarctic, North and South American, Pacific and Africa
Created by: FaithRaquel2015