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Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
What is microbiology? The study of microscopic organisms
Describe the structure of a bacterium. Be sure to include how it reproduces. unicellular organisms that lack membrane-bound structures, prokaryotes, can be shaped like a sphere, rod, spiral, or corkscrew-can reproduce both sexually (conjugation) and asexually (binary fission)
Describe how bacteria can cause disease. Be sure to include how they spread. Bacteria reproduces, multiplies, and builds up to cause the disease. Spread of disease by coughing, sneezing, transfer of bodily fluids
Describe how a bacterial infection can be treated. Treatment through antibiotics
Explain how to prevent a bacterial infection. Prevention of bacterial infections-good hygiene (washing hands, not touching eyes, nose, mouth)
Describe the structure of a virus. Be sure to include how it reproduces. microbe surrounded by a protein coating that infects and multiplies in host cells, contain DNA, considered to be not alive. Reproduces by “hijacking” a cell, injecting its genetic material, and making the cell’s organelles create new copies of the virus
Explain how virus can cause disease. Be sure to include how they spread. Virus reproduction can kill the cell, so after it “hijacks” the cell and it dies, more viruses are able to infect other cells. Spread by transfer of bodily fluids, air, water, etc.
Describe how a viral infection can be treated. Viral infections are best prevented but treatment includes antivirals. Most viruses have to “run their course” which means rest and fluids.
How can a viral infection be prevented? Vaccines are the best prevention, but good hygiene is also essential-hand washing and not touching eyes, mouth, or nose.
What is a fungus and how does it reproduce? a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. Fungus reproduces with spores
How can fungi cause disease? How do they spread Uncontrolled growth disrupts normal cell function. Spores are spread by wind and water and can remain dormant until conditions are optimal for growth.
Describe how fungal infections can be treated. Fungal infections are best treated with antifungals but also by keeping the area clean and dry. Exposure to sunlight also helps.
Explain how fungal infections can be prevented. Fungal infections can be prevented by keeping areas dry and avoiding areas that are potential infection zones (gym showers, pools, etc).
What is a parasite and how does it cause disease? organism that derives nourishment or habitat from the tissues or fluids of another organism, feeds off the host
How can a parasite be spread to other organisms? Parasites can live in contaminated water or be spread by vectors/carriers such as mosquitoes or animals.
Describe how a parasitic infection can be treated. Antiparasitics and surgery are the usual treatment. Antibiotics are used on rare occasions.
Describe how a parasitic infection can be prevented. Don’t drink unfiltered/untreated water, wear bug repellant when near mosquito infested areas
What is an outbreak? an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place
What is an epidemic? a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
What is a pandemic? an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region
How have epidemics and pandemics changed through history. People used to die from infectious diseases and pandemics at a much higher rate than they do now. People are more likely to die of non-infectious diseases such as cancer or heart disease.
Explain why this has changed. Advancements in medicine and germ knowledge have helped us prevent, treat, and cure many infectious diseases. This has all but eliminated pandemics of the past, but global travel is much easier these days (planes, trains, and automobiles).
Created by: vivianguo2001a