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DNA & Protein Vocab

DNA replication & Protein Synthesis Vocabulary

purines A;G; two rings
pyrimidines T;C;U; one ring
Griffith Mice experiment proved bacteria could get traits from other bacteria by transforming their traits.
Avery, McCarty & MacLeod Proved transforming agent was nucleic acid.
Hershey & Chase "Blender Experiment" with bacteriophages; proved DNA is hereditary material
Wilkins & Franklin used x-ray crystallography; produced a picture of DNA
Watson & Crick used Wilkins & Franklin's picture to create model; showed double helix and base pairs
Ribosomal RNA major component of ribosomes
Transfer RNA folded upon itself; carries the amino acids to the mRNA (ribosome where it is located)
Messenger RNA sequence of nucleotides that determines the primary sequence of the polypeptide; made in the nucleus from the DNA; transcription
snRNA forms the "splicesomes" - which are used to cut out intons from pre-mRNA
siRNA (small-interferring) targets specific mRNA and prohibits it from being expressed
activator bind to regulatory switches in a sequence-specific manner
mediators bring bound activators in contact with proteins bound to the promoter
DNa polymerase helps make the new matching DNA strand by adding nucleotides one at a time and joining each new nucleotide the the previous nucleotide int he growing DNA strand.
helicase unwinds parental double helix at replication forks
single-strand binding protein binds to an stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it is used as a template
topoisomerase relieves overwinding strain ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands
primase synthesizes an RNA primer at 5' end of leading strand and at 5' end of each Okazaki fragment of lagging strand
DNA pol III Using parental DNA as a template, synthesizes new DNA strand by adding nucleotides to an RNA primer or a pre-existing DNA strand
DNA pol I REmoves RNA nucleotides of primer from 5' end and replaces them with DNA nucleotides
DNA ligase Joins Okazaki fragments of lagging strand; on leading strand, joins 3' end of DNA that replaces primer to rest of leading strand DNA
A site holds tRNA carrying next amino acid to be added to chain
P site holds tRNA carrying growing polypeptide chain
E site Empty tRNA leaves ribosome from exit site
missense change amino acid to amino acid
nonsense change from amino acid to stop codon
RNA primer formed from RNA nucleotide bonds to start strand
RNA polymerase lays down the nucleotides 5' to 3' direction
central dogma flow of genetic information in a cell
promoter region biding site before beginning of a gene; TATA box; binding site for RNA polymerase & transcription factors
enhancer region binding site far upsream of gene; speeds up process
transcription factors turn on or off transctipion; triggers the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA; bind to promoter region of DNA
initiation tRNA carrying an amino acid comes in P-stie and bonds by base pairing its ancitcodon witht the mRNA start codon
Elongation the second tRNA then comes into A-site and bods to codon of mRNA
termination ribosome continues reading mRNA untial a stop codon is reached
nucleosomes histone proteins
Created by: 3j0mk1



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