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The Endocrine System

Updated

QuestionAnswer
what are endocrine glands? they are glands that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the bloodstream
what are exocrine glands? they are glands that release their secretion external to, or at the surface of an organ
what are the endocrine glands? pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal gland, ovaries and the testes
what are the exocrine glands? pancreas, kidneys and salivary gland
what does the pituitary gland release and what are it's functions? GH - growth hormone ADH - maintains water balance
what does the thyroid release and what are it's functions? thyroxine - maintains metabolism
what does the pancreas release and what are it's functions? insulin - decreases blood glucose glucagon - increases blood glucose
what does the adrenal gland release and what are it's functions? adrenaline - fight or flight hormone
what are hormones? chemical messengers
what do the ovaries release and what are it's functions? oestrogen - female development hormone progesterone - maintains uterine lining
what do the testes released and what is it's function? testosterone - male development hormone
what is a first messenger? the hormone that binds to the receptor on the cell surface
what is a secondary messenger? the activated protein molecule within the cell which carries the message and transfers it to the other enzymes inside the cell
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the breast and what is its function? Prolactin - production of breast milk
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the adrenal gland and what is its function? ACTH - stimulates the production of corticosteroids
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the thyroid and what is its function? TSH - stimulates the production of thyroxine
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the bone and what is its function? GH - stimulates growth
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the ovaries and what is its function? FSH - stimulates ovulation
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the testes and what is its function? LSH - stimulates production of sperm
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the kidney and what is its functions? ADH - re-absorption of water water from kidney tubules
what hormone is released by the pituitary gland to the uterus and what is its function? oxytocin - stimulates contractions
where is the pituitary gland found? in the brain
where is the thyroid gland found? in the throat
where is the adrenal gland located? on top of the kidneys
where is the pancreas located? behind the stomach
what is the islet of langerhans? endocrine cells located in the pancreas, including alpha and beta
what do the pancreatic exocrine cells secrete? digestive enzymes
what is lipase? a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas that works with the bile from the liver to break down fats to be more easily absorbed by the body
what is proteases? a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas that helps break down proteins
what is amylase? a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas that helps break down carbohydrates into sugars to be more easily used by the body
what is pancreatic juice? a clear alkaline digestive fluid
which cells in the islet of langerhans detect too much blood glucose? beta cells
which cells in the islet of langerhans detect too little blood glucose alpha cells
what is secreted by the beta cells in the islet of langerhans? insulin
what is secreted by the alpha cells in the islet of langerhans? glucagon
what is the standard pathway response for too little blood glucose? stimulus- too little blood glucose. sensors- alpha cells in the islet of langerhans. communication centre- pancreas. effector- alpha cells. response- alpha cells secrete glucagon which converts glycogen into glucose, increasing blood glucose levels
what is the standard pathway response for too much blood glucose? stimulus- too much blood glucose. sensors- beta cells in islet of langerhans. communication center- pancreas. effector- beta cells. response- beta cells secrete insulin which converts glucose into glycogen, decreasing blood glucose levels
Created by: deannarosee