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chapter 9

Name 3 examples of minerals that are made up of pure elements. Gold, silver, and copper.
Luster The term used to describe how light is reflected from a mineral's surface.
Clevage A mineral that splits easily among flat surfaces.
Streak Is the color of a minerals powder.
Hardness Used to rank the hardness of minerals.
Color The look of the mineral by reflections
What are the hardest and softest minerals. Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Feldspar, Quartz, Topaz, Corundum, and Diamond.
How is halite formed? Evaporation
Extrusive Igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto Earth's surface.
Intrusive Igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath the surface of Earth.
Fine grained Having a non noticeably grainy appearance.
Coarse grained Having a noticeably grainy appearance.
Banded A pattern of flat layers or can form swirls or colored bands.
Deposition The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it.
Igneous Forms from the cooling of magma or lava.
Sedimentary Forms when small particles of rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
Metamorphic Forms when a rock is changed by heat or pressure, or by chemical reactions.
There are large crystals in what rocks. Igneous, pegmatite, porphyry, rhyolite, and granite.
What are igneous rocks commonly used for? Building materials.
compaction The process that presses sediments together.
Cementation The process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
Erosion The process by which running water, wind, or ice carry away bits of broken up rock.
What are sedimentary rocks made up of? Rock fragments with rounded edges.
Sedimentary rock is used to make what? Cement.
What is the texture of slate? Fine grain.
How does the hardness scale work? It ranks the minerals by a scratch test.
What makes up granite? Quartz, feldspar, mica, and other minerals.
How does the rock cycle work? Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock can change into each other.
How does an igneous rock change into a metamorphic rock. When magma cools from the igneous rock, it makes crystals. When the crystals cool they form into metamorphic rock.
Describe 2 types of chemical composition that characterize minerals. A crystal of quartz has one atom of silicon for every two atoms of oxygen. A garnet group of minerals has three atoms of silicon for every twelve atoms of oxygen.
What does a mineral streak tell you about the mineral and be able to explain how you test for it. A mineral streak tells you the color of its powder. You take a porcelain plate and scratch the mineral from the top of the plate to the bottom of the plate with the mineral. There will be a streak of color on the plate.
What are advantages and disadvantages of using color alone to identify a mineral. An advantage is that it narrows down some of the choices. A disadvantage is that it doesn't narrow down most of your choices, and is a big chance that you won't pick the right mineral.
Created by: kwinkler