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ADV Biology CH. 6

A tour of the Cell

TermDefinition
Light Microscope An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens.
Organelles Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
Electron Microscope A microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam on or through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope.
Cytosol The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic Cell A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
Prokaryotic Cell A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
Cytoplasm The contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma membrane.
Plasma membrane The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell's chemical composition.
Nucleus The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
Chromosome A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Transport Vesicles A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
Mitochondria An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
Chloroplasts An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
Cytoskeleton A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical, transport, and signalling functions.
Cilia A short cellular appendage containing microtubules.
Cell Wall A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in the cells of plants, prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists.
Extracellular Matrix (ECM) The substance in which animal cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides synthesized and secreted by the cells.
Created by: Mr.Devine