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AP Biology Unit 3

Chapters 6, 9, & 10 (Cellular Energetics)

If a plant appears reddish yellos what wavelengths of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment? red and yellow
What are the products of noncyclic photophosphorylation? ATP and NADPH
An organism is discovered that consumes a lot of sugar, yet does not gain much weight when denied air. Curiously, the consumption of sugar increases as air is removed from the organism's enviroment, still thrives in absence of air.What is it? facultative anaerobe
What is a chemical reaction that has a positive change G? endergonic
Are CO2, RuBP, and ATP all neccesary for the Calvin cycle? yes
What is the thermodynamic barrier that reactants capable of interacting must overcome to form products in a chemical reaction called? activation energy
How does fat leave the body of a person who is on a low carb diet? it is released as CO2 and H2O
What is thought to be one of the first metabolic pathway to have evolved? glycolisis
Where does carbon fixation take place in C4 photosynthesis? mesophyll cells
Where is the carbon transfered as malic or aspartic acid in C4 photosynthesis? bundle-sheath cells
What process stores energy in complex organic molecules? photosynthesis
What process releases energy from complex organic molecules? respiration
What do mitochondria and chloroplast have in commom? (Hint: two answers) chemiosmosis & ATP synthase
What is regenerated from NADH during alcohol fermintation? NAD+
What is reduced from ethanol in alcohol femintation? acetaldehyde
What are C4 plants able to do with no apparent photorespiration? photosynthesize
What do C4 plants initially fix to CO2? PEP carboxylase
What is ATP made during glycolisis generated by? chemiosmosis
Fermintation occurs in the absense of what? oxygen
What is produced as the result of yeast cells undergoing the process of fermentation? (Hint: 3 answers) ATP, pyruvate, oxygen
Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction could overcome what type of inhibition? competitive inhibition
What is light energy used for during photosynthesis? excite electrons
Where do enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place? stroma of the chloroplast
What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplast involve the establishment of? proton gradient
What metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation? glycolysis
What substance generally energizes a cellular process by couplin free energy released by ATP hydrolysis to free energy needed by other reactions? ATP
What is the term for the metabolic pathway in which glucose is degraded to carbon dioxide and water? cellular respiration
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into what location? mitochondrial intdrmembrane space
What are the "net" products of glycolisis? 2NADH, NH+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, & 2 H2O
Where does glycolysis take place? cytosol
What is the region of the enzyme that is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme? active site
What are the two locations in which ATP synthase complexes located? thylakoid membrane & inner mitochondrial membrane
During glycolysis most of the where is most of the energy of glucose retained? pyruvate
During glycolysis what is glucose catabolized to? pyruvate
What are the two products of the light reactions that are subsequently used by the Calvin cycle? ATP & NADPH
The direct energy that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is what? the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondiral membrane
When do CAM plants keep their stomata closed? daytime
What do CAM plants fix CO2 into during the night? organic acids
What intermediary metabolite enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon from one molecule of pyruvate? acetyl CoA
Each time a molecule of glucose is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules are required? 6
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle? synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
What is synthesized from carbon dioxide during the Calvin cycle? simple sugars
What requires ATP; light reactions or the Calvin cycle? Calvin cycle
What requires glucose; light reactions or the Calvin cycle? neither light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
What produces three carbon sugars; light reactions or the Calvin cycle? Calvin cycle
What requires CO2; light reactions or the Calvin cycle? Calvin cycle
What produces NADPH; light reaction or the Calvin cycle? light reactions
What is a proton gradient in mitochondria is generated by during aerobic respiration? electron transport chain
What is a proton gradient primarily used for during aerobic respiration? ATP synthase
Where does the Calvin cycle take place? stroma of the chloroplast
What are the products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calcin cycle? ATP & NADPH
How many electrons does the light energy excite during the light reactions? 2
What are stacks of thylakoid called? grana
How many membranes does chloroplast have? 2
Where do the dark reactions of the chloroplast take place? stroma
Where do the light reactions of the chloroplast take place? thylakoid membrane
What is being oxidized in photosynthysis? H2O
What is being reduced in photosynthysis? CO2
What organisms create their own food? authotrophs
What organisms eat other organism for food? heterotrophs
When trees loose their leaves do they cease to carry out photosynthesis until spring? yes
How is CO2 related to the rate of photsynthesis? directly
How is the amount of light related to the rate of photosynthesis? directly
How is water availabiliyt related to the rate of photosynthesis? directly
How is temperature related to the rate of photosynthesis? directly
How many phases does the Calvin cycle have? 3
What is the first phase of the Calvin cycle? carbon fixation
What is the second phase of the Calvin cycle? reduction
What is the third phase of the Calvin cycle? regeneration of RuBP
What type of electron flow uses only one photosytem? cyclic
Created by: atryan