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232 final

232 final all inclusive

QuestionAnswer
what is jaundice excess bilirubin
Source, Target, Type, Action of Growth Hormone Anterior Pituitary Gland, systemic, non steroid, makes things grow (bones, muscle)
Source, Target, Type, Action of Thyroid-Stimulating (tsh) Anterior Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, non-steroid, influences metabolism
Source, Target, Type, Action of Adreno-corticotroptic (acth) Anterior pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, non-steroid, regulates adrenal activity (controls)
Source, Target, Type, Action of Prolactin (PRL) Anterior Pituitary Gland, Mammary gland, non steroid, makes milk
Source, Target, Type, Action of Luteinizing(LH) Anterior Pituitary gland, gonads, non steroid, stimulate sex organs
Source, Target, Type, Action of follicle-stimulating (fsh anterior pituitary gland, gonads, turns on gonads
Source, Target, Type, Action of Anti-diuretic (ADH hypothalamus, kidneys, non steroid, reabsorb water
Source, Target, Type, Action of oxytocin )OT( hypothalamus, smooth muscle (uterous) nonsteroid, stimulates milk and gets baby out
Source, Target, Type, Action of Thyroid (t3 &t4) thyroid gland, systemic, non steroid, Controls rate of metabolism
Source, Target, Type, Action of Calcitonin Thyroid gland, systemic, decreases blood calcium levels (by taking it out of blood and building bones osteoblasts)
Source, Target, Type, Action of Parathyroid (PTH) Parathyroid gland, oseteoclast, non steroid, raises blood calcium levels (by taking bone, destroying it and releasing the calcium into the blood)
Source, Target, Type, Action of Mineral corticoids (aldosterone) adrenal cortex, systemic (kidney tubules), STEROID, regulates water and electrolyte balance in cells (salt content)
Source, Target, Type, Action of glucocorticoids (cortisol) adrenal cortex, systemic, STEROID, raise blood glucose levels during stress (quickly)
Source, Target, Type, Action of Androgens (sex hormones) Adrenal cortex & gonads, systemic, steroids, stimulates sex organ growth, muscle mass, secondary sex organs
Source, Target, Type, Action of insulin pancreas islets beta, systemic, non steroid, lower blood sugar levels
Source, Target, Type, Action of glucagon pancreas islets alpha, systemic and liver, non steroid, raises blood sugar level
Source, Target, Type, Action of melatonin pineal gland, brain, non steroid, inhibits precocious sex and promotes sleep.
Source, Target, Type, Action of Atrial Naturetic Heart, Kidney, non steroid, gets rid of salt
Which organs are responsible for removing old blood cells from the body liver and spleen
which hormones are direct antagonists calcitonin and pth, insulin and glucagon, aldosterone and anp
what are tropic hormones hormones that direct the action of other hormones (Management)
what are the tropic hormones TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH
What are releasing hormones hormones that direct the tropic hormones
location of synthesis of releasing hormones and job they are made in the hypothalamus and sent out the anterior pituitary gland
receptor types photo, chemical, mechanical, baro, thermo-
vision pathway cornea, aqueas humor, pupil, lens, vitrious humor, retina, to rods and cones...light detection for r & c is pigment (rhodipsin) to opsin to pde which closes sodium channels and turns off nerves and sends a "negative" to the occipital lobe
sound pathway sound starts in external ear, hits ear drum, vibrates ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) that vibrates cochlea which is filled with fluid and vibrates the little hair cells connected to cranial nerves and sends to temporal lobe
ear balance pathway move head, moves fluid in semi-circular canals, moves hairs connected to nerves to cerebellum
steps to determine balance 1. vision. 2. dynamic equilibrium 3. static equilibrium. 4 proprioreceptors (muscles
static ear balance rocks fall with gravity, otoliths "ear Rocks", move hairs and talk to cerebellum
normal hemocrit 45%
amenia types iron deficiency, hemorragic, b12 deficiency, sicle cell amenia
blood jobs transportation of gasses, nutrients, waste
components of blood rbc, wbc, platlets
rbcs red blood cells- carry gasses (oxygen and co2), made in bone marrow
wbcs immunity - lukacites
platlets important for clotting
plasma watery medium that plasma floats in. contains waste, nutrients, gasses
When oxygen levels are low... more EPO is made and sent from the Liver and Kidneys to tell the bone marrow to make more blood.
getting rid of old RBC's starts in liver and spleen where the liver takes out the iron (done by transferrin), amino acids go to the plasma, rest goes to bilirindin to the bile to bilirubin in liver and gallbladder to intestines and end in rectum.
universal donor blood type o-
universal blood type reciepent ab+
getting cut repair steps vessel spasm (shrinks, vasoconstruct). platlet plug. clotting
clotting cascade Tissue factor > PF3 > X > Prothrombin Activator > makes thrombin which makes fibrin (clotting) and plasmin (clot destroyer)
TPA - tissue plasmin activator for stroke victims
Heart anatomy 2 atrium and 2 ventricles (chambers)
arteries move... away from the heart
veins move... to the heart
Pulmonary circut trips to the lungs
Systemic circut trips to everywhere else in the body
Blood pathway in through the superior/inferior vena cava to the RA through Tricuspid valve > RV out the Pulmonary artery > lungs > Pulmonary Vein > LA through Bicuspid valve > LV > out the Aorta to body
Pulmonary side Right side (used blood, lack of oxygen)
Systemic side Left side (new blood, oxygen, red)
starley law if you "prestretch" the heart you are able to get more blood in
cardiac cycle ventricle fill with blood from atrium, ventricles systole (contract) and valves close behind blood, blood leaves via artery, isovolumetric relaxiation
Intrinsic Conduction System SA Node (Pacemaker, P Wave, atria contract, Autorhythmic), AV Node (ventricles contract, autorhythmic, QRS wave), Reset (relaxing T-Wave)
Cardiac Action Potential 1. sodium goes in. 2. calcium in. (depolarization) Also the calcium in makes for a pause to fill the ventricles. Potassium out (repolarization)
cardiac output heart rate (pulse) X stroke volume
Peripheral Nervous system Somatic and Autonomic, Sensory and Motor, Basically everything in the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord
Somatic is... voluntary and controls the skeletal muscles
autonomic is... involuntary and controls the smooth muscles
Sensory pns is... input and to the brain
motor pns is... output and moving away from the brain
Diaphragm rhyme Phrenic nerve. Cervical plexus. c3 c4 c5 keep the diaphragm alive
ascending nerve characteristics from body to brain, sensory
descending nerve characteristics from the brain to the body, motor
Reflex steps (6) 1. stimulus 2. sensor/receptor 3. sensory neuron 4. area of spinal cord/plexus 5. motor neuron 6. effector (muscle)
interneurons they go up and down the spine, across the spine, sends messages to the brain (learning), antagonist inhibition (tells the opposite muscle to relax)
ipsi-lateral reflex occurs on same side as stimulus
contralateral when reflex occurs on opposite side of stimulus
meninges function surround the cns, protects and cushions
cerebral-spinal fluid function shock absorbers, cushions, blood brain barrier
spinal tap location lumbar (more space to work inside of
Brain Stem parts Medulla oblongata, Pons
Diencephalon parts hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus
cerebrum parts parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occiptial lobe, temporal lobe
cerebellum parts abor vitea, vermis
medulla oblongata function basic life support, breathing, heart
pons function means bridge, connects the brain stem to the rest of the brain or "high brain", regulates breathing
thalamus function relay center, router, switchboard. Directs traffic - sorts the messages and gets them from the spine to the parts of brain.
hypothalamus function homeostasis
epithalamus function makes cerebral spinal fluid
Meninges anatomy Dura mater (outermost), arachnoid mater (middle), pia mater (innermost).
Subarachnoid space function place where the csf lies
csf pathway 1. epithalamus. 2. fill ventricles (center of brain). 3. travel through "cerebral aqueduct". 4. central canal. 5. leaks from the medularis conas into subarachnoid space of spine. 6. up the outside of spine to outside the brain. 7. out the arachnoid villi.
cerebellum function coordination or balance
mesencephalon parts corpara quadrigemina (reflexes visual and audio) rubro area (red nucleus or muscle tone, tells muscles to keep going) Ras (awareness or consciences)
occipital lobe funcion visual
temporal lobe function nose and hearing
parietal lobe function sensory, understanding words (wernickes)
frontal lobe function motor functions, recognition (thinking and personality, making words (brocas areas)
dominant hemisphere the location of the Broca's area
cns 1 olfactory, smell, sensory
cns 2 optic, sight, sensory
cns 3 oculomotor, moves eye, motor
cns 4 trochlear, moves eye, motor
cns 5 trigeminal, jaws and teeth, both
cns 6 abducens, moves eye, motor
cns 7 facial, face and expressions, both
cns 8 vestbulo cochlea, hearing and balance, sensory
cns 9 glossopharngeal, tongue throat, both
cns 10 vasus, heart/guts, both
cns 11 accessory, neck muscles, motor
cns 12 hypoglossal, throat, motor
Mirror nerve location Frontal Lobe, Pre-motor cortex, (planning movement
Mirror nerve function lack of empathy
Limbic system parts and funtion Parts: Hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus. Function: Emotional system, keeps you from doing something stupid. Memory
Muscles the ANS talks to Involuntary
ANS is controlled by limbic system: Sympathatic or Parasympathetic
Sympathetic wire location thoraco-Lumbar region
Parasympathetic wire locations cranial-sacral region
Sympathetic characteristics fight or flight
parasympathetic charasteristics rest and digest
sympathetic neuron charasteristics short 1st neuron, long 2nd neuron or short pregangleonic fiber and long post ganglionic fiber
parasympathetic neuron charasteristics long 1st neuron, short 2nd neuron or long pre-gangleonic fiber and short post-ganglionic fiber
sympathetic neurotransmitters Acetylocholine from pre to post and epinephrine (adreneline) to organ
Parasympathetic neurotransmitters acetelocholine from pre to post and to organ
Ascending tracts spino-cerebellum, spino-thalamic, dorsal columns.
decending tracts cortisospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal
spino cerebellar doesn't cross, balance
spino thalmic pain and temp, crosses at spine and then goes up
dorsal columns touch, crosses at the medula oblongatta
cortisospinal voluntary motor, crosses at medula oblongatta
rubrospinal muscle tone (keeping your back straight so you don't fall over), crosses at the medula obsongatta
reticulospinal muscle tone (keeping your back straight so you don't fall over), crosses at the medula obsongatta
a drug that works to block a receptor is what? antagonist
Ach (acetacholine) recptors affect which system parasympathetic system
drugs that affect the sympathetic system are... androgenic
drugs that affect the parasympathetic system are... cholinergic
alpha drugs affect... everywhere
Beta 1 drugs affect the heart
beta 2 drugs affect the lungs
Atenolol beta 1 blocker (antagonist)
Propranolol beta 1 and beta 2 blocker
prazosin alpha 1 blocker
atropine ach blocker
phenylephrine alpha 1 agonist
dobutamine beta 1 agonist
albuterol beta 2 agonist
norepinephrine alpha 1 and 2, beta 1 agonist (predominantly alpha 1 agonist)
what sound makes the lub tricuspid and bicuspid valves
what sound makes the dub pulmonary and aortic valves
what is a ventricular septal defect a hole in the heart
ventricular diastole ventricular relaxation
factors affecting blood pressure vasoconstriction (smaller pipes more pressure), hemocrit (how many rbc you have, and viscosity, thicker blood pressure goes up harder to push), vessel length, more fat means more tissue to service (pressure goes up)
short term bp regulation Nerves responsible, baroreceptors in neck say we need more blood, (sympathetic response), brain gets epinephrine to heart, heart beats like crazy
long term bp regulation hormones responsible, kidney makes renin > angiotensin I > to lungs to make > angiotensin II converts to ACE enzyme goes to adrenal gland to make Alderstone. more alterstone, more salt, keeps water, water goes to plasma higher plasma lower blood pressure
cappilary components sphincter, when open blood goes from artery to vein through the capillarries. when low 0xygen they open when high co2 they open and when 2 much waste. negative feedback dictates opening
dynamic equilibrium is semi-circular ducts
Layers for immunity skin, hair, cillia, mucus, tears, saliva, sweat, oil, wax, urine, stomach acid, vaginal acid
inflammation for immunity red hot big, because of increased blood flow and more wbc
neutrophil function eats bad things
histamine function chemical messenger to promote swelling and or blood flow
lymphocyte function immune response
monocyte function macrophage (eats)
eosinophil function attacks parasites
basophils function releases histamine
layers of immunity 1. protection (skin and liquids). 2. inflammation (increased blood flow). 3. lymph system (drainage system). 4. immune response (killers)
lymph system function drainage system, teh extra fluid is "lymph" and the lymph nodes are filters to the heart
lymphocyte cell types b cell and t cell
immune response pathway 1. b-cell grabs invader. 2. waits for orders. 3. t-cell orders "cytokines" to clone b-cell so they will have proper receptor. 5. 2 clone cell types plasma cell clone to release antibodies and sleeper cells to remember the invader
Ig rhyme IGA'S flow away, IGD is on the B, IGE is allergy, IGG is bloody baby, IGM is first membranie
iga place and function mucosal layer, body fluid, tears, saliva, milk. they stop attachment and keep things from coming in
igd place and function found on b-cell. They grab invaders
ige place and function found skin, intestines, respiratory system. It triggers the release of histamine and gets inflamation rolling
Igg place and function plasma, main antibody/fighter for baby, crosses placenta
igm place and function attached to b-cell, first one made
mhc protein identifying protein on each and every body cell
antogen presenting cell
Created by: boone.reavis