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Immuno Stack

Immunology Test - Chapter 1

Cells __________ are at the heart of immune function.
10 trillion The human body consists of approximately __________ cells.
fertilized egg cell All cells are descended from a single type of cell, called the __________.
differentiation This process, by which one type of cell becomes another, is called __________.
immune system, tissues they protect The communication between cells of the __________ and the cells of the ___________ is critical to an understanding of immune function.
cell signalling The major mechanisms by which cells transmit signals to each other, and how these signals are conveyed from the cell membrane to the nucleus to modulate gene expression, commonly referred to as __________.
secreted and membrane-bound mediators, proteins The functions of cells of the immune system are dependent on a diverse array of __________, many of which are __________.
Pattern recognition receptors __________ are required to bind to microbes to enable their detection and elimination.
Adhesion molecules, chemokine receptors __________ and __________ are required to help immune cells migrate into the correct tissues.
Cytokines __________ enable immune cells to send signals to each other.
Chemokines __________ are required to recruit cells to a particular location.
two There are __________ major arms of the immune response.
innate immunity This quick-acting and powerful response is based on the recognition of key molecules commonly associated with many different types of invader using receptors that are encoded by the germline DNA, and only change very slowly over millennia by evolution.
adaptive immune response Immunity that first emerged ~ 500 million years ago in the jawed fishes, and is now present in all vertebrate animals.
memory Exposure to one organism could lead to enhanced defense against that organism if it should ever be encountered again.
innate All lower animals make do solely with __________ immunity.
phagocytic cells Cells of the innate immune system include __________.
anti-viral response The __________ depends largely on signals that encourage nearby cells to shut down protein synthesis and switch on their own cellular defenses against viral infection.
Inflammation __________ is the process of recruitment of white blood cells (leukocytes) and plasma proteins from the blood into the tissues to combat infection.
danger signals Molecular motifs recognized by ancient, highly conserved receptors expressed on many different types of cell, including many cells not associated with the immune system.
recognition of "self" and "non-self" molecules A key role played by the innate immune system is the __________.
pattern recognition receptors (or PRRs), pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) __________ detects __________ on non-self molecules, facilitating a defense response from the innate immune system.
no memory generated The key limitation of the innate immune system it that there is __________ by exposure to a particular type of organism.
two There are __________ key arms of the adaptive immune response.
Humoral, cell-mediated The two key arms of the adaptive immune response are: __________ and __________.
antibodies Bind to and neutralize microbes, produced by cells called B-lymphocytes.
B-lymphocytes Antibodies are produced by the __________.
T-lymphocytes Cell-mediated immunity, which is mediated by __________, serves to kill virally infected cells and also to control and regulate the immune responses of other cells.
Adaptive immunity, remember __________ shows high specificity for target molecules and the ability to __________ previous encounters with particular microbes.
antigens Highly diverse target molecules are termed __________.
DNA recombination As there simply isn’t enough DNA in the human genome to code for the millions of possible receptors that are required for adaptive immunity to work, they must be prepared by the process of __________.
Created by: mystic.meadows