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LAJ 300 -Dr. Olivero

Chapter 5 - Terms & Concepts

TermDefinition
biometrics (p. 194) – automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic
community policing (p. 171) – a law enforcement program that seeks to integrate officers into the local community to reduce crime and gain good community relations.
constable (p. 164) – in early English towns, an appointed peacekeeper who organized citizens for protection and supervised the night watch
data mining (p. 190) – using sophisticated computer software to conduct analysis of behavior patterns in an effort to identify crime patterns and link them to suspects
DNA profiling (p. 195) – the identification of criminal suspects by matching DNA samples taken from their person with specimens found at crime scene
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (p. 174) – the arm of the Justice Department that investigates violations of federal law, gathers crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory, and helps train local law enforcement officers
hue and cry (p. 164) – in medieval England, a call for mutual aid against trouble or danger
hundred (p. 164) – in medieval England, a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses
justice of the peace (p. 164) – official appointed to act as the judicial officer in a county
Metropolitan Police Act (p. 165) – Sir Robert Peel’s legislation that established the first organized police force in London.
private policing (p. 183) – crime prevention, detection, and the apprehension of criminals carried out by private organizations or individuals for commercial purposes
sheriff (p. 164) – the chief law enforcement officer in a county
shire reeve (p. 164) – in early England, the chief law enforcement official in a county, forerunner of today's sheriff
thermal imagers (p. 190) – a device that detects radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, used in law enforcement to detect variations in temperature (warm images stand out against cool backgrounds)
tything (tithing) (p. 164) – in medieval England, a collective group of 10 families that pledged to help one another and provide mutual aid
vigilantes (p. 166) – in the old west, members of a vigilance committee or posse called upon to capture cattle thieves or other felons
watch system (p. 164) – in medieval England, groups of men who organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of the local constable
Wickersham Commission (p. 169) – formally known as the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, a commission created in 1929 by President Herbert Hoover to study the U.S. criminal justice system, including the police
Created by: cengel