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REHS: Food Science

Food Science; Foodborne Diseases

Reservoir: Soil, foods, feces, mud, dust; Vehicle: Improperly processed canned foods; Symptoms: GI pain, diarrhea or constipation, double vision, difficulty swallowing; Incubation: 2hr - 8 days Botulism food poisoning
Reservoir: Skin, pus, sputum; Vehicle: Custard, cooked or processed meats, hollandaise sauce, dairy,(PICNICS); Sypmtoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; Incubation: 1-6 hours, average 2-4 hours Staphylococcus food poisoning
Reservoir: Soil, poultry, pigs, vermin; Vehicle: Inadequately heated meats, roasts, stews, beef, poultry, gravies(CAFETERIAS); Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea; Incubation: 8-22 hours, usually 10-12 hours Clostridium perfringes food poisoning
Reservoir: Spores found in cereals, spices; Vehicle: Inadequately refrigerated then inadequately reheated cooked foods (assoc. w/diarrheal type), rice (assoc. w/vomiting type); Symptoms: Diarrhea, cramps, vomiting; Incubation: 6-16 hours Bacillus cereus food poisoning
Reservoir: Livestock, poultry, eggs, turtles, rodents; Vehicle: Uncooked meats, equipment, warmed foods, milk products; Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, chills, fever; Incubation: 6-48 hours, usually 12-24 Salmonellosis
Reservoir: Feces & urine of carrier; Vehicle: Contaminated water, milk products, shellfish, foods, flies; Symptoms: Fever, usually rose spots on trunk, diarrhea; Incubation: Average 14 days, usually 7-21 Typhoid Fever
Reservoir: Feces of carriers; Vehicle: Contaminated water or foods, milk, flies, person-to-person; Symptoms: Fever, tenesmus, bloody stools; Incubation: 1-7 days, usually less than 4 Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)
Reservoir: Tissues, blood, milk, urine, infected animals; Vehicle: Raw milk from infected cows or goats; Symptoms: Fever, sweating, chills, joint/muslce pains; Incubation: 5-21 days Brucellosis (Undulant Fever)
Reservoir: Nose, throat, mouth secretions; Vehicle: Contaminated salads or milk products; Symptoms: Sore throat and fever, vomiting; Incubation: 1-3 days Streptococcal infections
Reservoir: respiratory tract of man; Vehicle: Contact, eating and drinking utensils, food, and milk; Symptoms: Cough, fever, fatigue, pleurisy; Incubation: 4-6 wks Tuberculosis
Reservoir: Rabbits, deer fly, rodents, horseflies, wood ticks; Vehicle: Meat of infected rabbit, contaminated water; Symptoms: Sudden onset, with pains and fever; Incubation: 1-10 days, average of 3 Tularemia
Reservoir: Wild and domestic animals, birds, man; Vehicle: Milk products, seafood, raw/rare meats; Symptoms: Diarrhea, cramps, fever, headache, vomiting, rash, appendicitis; Incubation: 3-7 days, usually 2-3 Yersiniosis
Reservoir: Goats, cattle, man, fowl, soil, water, sewage; Vehicle: Raw milk/milk products, contaminated vegatables; Symptoms: Fever, headache, nausea, vomiting; Incubation: Few days to 3 weeks Listeriosis
Reservoir: Oysters, sea water, sediment, plankton; Vehicle: Raw or lightly cooked seafood; Symptoms: Fever, chills, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea; Incubation: 16 hours Vibrio vulnificus gastroenteritis
Reservoir: Dairy cattle, sheep, goats, ticks; Vehicle: Slaughterhouse, dairy employees, handling infected cattle; Symptoms: Heavy perspiration and chills, headache, malaise, (NO FEVER); Incubation: 2-3 weeks, average 20 days Q Fever
Reservoir: Feces and vomitus of carries; Vehicle: Contaminated water, raw foods, flies, shellfish; Symptoms: Diarrhea, rice-water stools, vomiting, thirst, pain, coma, (NO FEVER); Incubation: Few hours - 5 days, usually 3 days Cholera
Reservoir: Feces from infected persons; Vehicle: Water, food, milk, oysters, clams, person-to-person, fecal-oral; Symptoms: Fever, nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice, headache, fatigue, possible vomiting; Incubation: 10-50 days, average 30-35 days Infectious hepatitis
Reservoir: Man, feces from infected food handler or sewage; Vehicle: Water, food, milk, ice, clams, possibly fecal-oral or fecal-respiratory route; Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low fever; Incubation: 24-72 or 24-48 hrs, 3-15 days Gastroenteritis, viral
Reservoir: Bowl discharges of carrier and infected persons, dog, beaver; Vehicle: Cycts, water, food, raw fruits, hand-to-mouth route; Symptoms: Prolonged diarrhea, abdominal cramps, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, gas; Incubation: 6-22 days, average 9 days Giardiasis
Reservoir: Farm animals, man, fowl, cats, dogs, mice; Vehicle: Water, food, fecal-oral, person-to-person; Symptoms: Flulike symp., diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomach pain; Incubation: 2-21 days, average 2-10 days Cryptosporidiosis
Reservoir: Urine and feces of rats, swine, dogs, cats, mice, foxes, sheep; Vehicle: Food, water, soil w/feces or urine of infected animal; Symptoms: Fever, rigors, headaches, muscular pains, thirst, vomiting, jaundice; Incubation: 4-19 days, average 9-10 Leptospirosis (Weil's disease)
Reservoir: Pigs, bears, wild boars, rats, foxes, wolves; Vehicle: Infected pork, bear and wild boar meat; Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, swelling of face/eyelids, difficulty swallowing; Incubation: 2-28 days, usually 9 days Trichinosis
Reservoir: Urine/feces, dog/cats, cattle, pigs, mice/rats, water buffalo; Vehicle: Cercariae-infested drinking/bathing water (lakes/coastal sea waters); Symptoms: Dysenteric symptoms, rigors, dermatitis/itchy skin (Swimmer's Itch); Incubation: 4-6 wks Schistosomiasis (blood flukes)
Reservoir: Small intestine of man, gorilla, ape; Vehicle: food, water, sewage; Symptoms: Worm in stool, abdominal pain, protuberant abdomen, skin rash, nausea, large appetite; Incubation: About 2 months Ascariasis (intestinal roundworm)
Reservoir: Man, cattle, pigs, buffalo, mice/rats; Vehicle: Infected meat eaten raw, food contaminated w/ feces of man, mice, or rats; Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, insomnia, excessive appetite; Incubation: 8-10 weeks Taeniasis (pork or beef tapeworm)
Reservoir: Man, frogs, dogs, cats, bears, man; Vehicle: Infected freshwater fish eaten raw; Symptoms: Abdominal pain, weight loss, anemia, weakness; Incubation: 3-6 weeks Fish Tapeworm (broad tapeworm)
Reservoir: Respiratory and intestinal tract of man, cats, dogs, pigs, rats, wolves; Vehicle: Contaminated water, freshwater crabs or crayfish; Symptoms: Chronic cough, clubbed fingers, dull pains, diarrhea; Incubation: Variable Paragonimiasis (lung flukes)
Reservoir: Marine mammals and fish (rockfish, salmon, cod, tuna); Vehicle: Contaminated fish eaten raw or undercooked; Symptoms: Stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, confused w/appendicitis; Incubation: Hours Anisakiasis
Reservoir: Warm-water fish (barracuda, snapper, grouper, sea bass); Vehicle: Fish caught near shore from Pacific and Caribbean, coral reef fish; Symptoms: Numbness, tetanuslike spasms, heavy tongue, facial stiffness; Incubation: 1-8 hrs, usually 3-5 hrs Ciguatera poisoning
Reservoir: Clams and mussels feeding on toxic dinoflagellates; Vehicle: Mussel/clams associated with Red Tides; Symptoms: Respiratory paralysis, lip trembling or numbness, loss of control of extremities and neck; Incubation: 5-30 min, up to 12 hrs Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
Reservoir: Scombridea family (tuna, bluefish, amberjack); Vehicle: Fish at room temp forming toxic histamine in muscle; Symptoms: Headache, burning mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tingling of fingers, fever, cramps; Incubation: Minutes to 1 hr Scombroid fish poisoning
Reservoir: Roach powder; Vehicle: Sodium flouride taken for baking powder, soda, flour; Symptoms: Acute poisoning, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, paresis of eyes, face, finger muscles, and lower extremities; Incubation: Minutes to 2 hrs Fluoride or Sodium fluoride poisoning
Reservoir: Galvanized iron; Vehicle: Acid food made in galvanized iron pots and utensils; Symptoms: Pain in mouth, throat, and abdomen followed by diarrhea; Incubation: Variable, short Zinc poisoning
What is the difference between the diarrheal type and vomiting type of Bacillus cereus food poisoning? Diarrheal type = toxin heat labile with 6-16 hour incubation time; Vomiting type = toxin heat stable with 1-6 hour incubation type. Common vehicle is specific to boiled and fried rice.
What specific agent is associated with Botulism food poisoning? Clostridium botulinum and C. parabotulinum
What specific agent is associated with the "cafeteria bacteria" food poisoning? Clostridium perfringens (C. welchi)
Pasteurizing all milk and milk products is the recommended prevention and control method for what diseases? Typhoid fever, Shigellosis, Brucellosis, Streptococcal infections, Tuberculosis, Q Fever, and Diphtheria
What specific agent is associated with Traveler's diarrhea? E. coli
What specific agent is associated with Q fever? Coxiella burnetti
At what temperature range does the Listeria bacteria grow best at? 37° to 113° F
What disease is associated with the poison from the Vicia faba bean and plant? Favism
What are the possible symptoms of Mercury poisoning? Fatigue, mouth numbness, loss of vision, poor coordination, hand tremors, blindness, and paralysis
What pH range do most microorganisms grow best at? pH 6.6 - 7.5
Hot food temperatures must be kept at a minimum of ____ and as high as ____. 135°F and 165°F
What are the maximum hot food cooling time limits? From 135°F (or from cooking temp) to 71°F within the first 2 hours; From 70°F (or from cooking temp) to 41°F or below within 4 hours.
What is Blue Baby Syndrome? Occurs when an infant ingests food or water containing high levels of nitrates, which causes internal suffocation in infants (results in bluing of the face and lips).
What chemical food additive is associated with Chinese Restaurant Food Poisoning Syndrome? Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
What is the "danger zone"? >41°F to <135°F = The ideal temperature range for bacteria reproduction and growth
At what temperature are most bacteria killed? 165°F
Define "Potentially Hazardous Foods" (PHFs). Food that is capable of growing or multiplying pathogenic organisms to dangerous, disease-causing levels, e.g., fresh meats and seafood, milk products, raw eggs, lettuce & other produce, etc.
There has been an increase of food poisoning in connection with a commercial food. What is the best procedure to investigate the situation? Contact the manufacturer and find out the ingredients.
What is the infectious agent, reservoir, primary transmission, incubation period & effect of Cholera? Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Resvr:Humans; fecal-oral= ingesting poop-contaminated water or food, most in poor countries; 2-3 hrs to 5 days; circulatory collapse due to watery diarrheal dehydration.
List the characteristics of Vibrio cholerae. Bacteria, gram negative, survives aerobic and facultative anaerobic, produces enterotoxin that is heat labile.
Measures the fat content of milk; measures the freezing point of milk (to detect alterations such as dilution with water) Babcock Test; Cryoscope
At what condition is botulism more susceptible/less viable? High acid or high pH; (tolerates medium acid but prefers neutral environment)
Based on the Bacterial Growth Graph, characterize the rate of growth & deatth? Which phases are associated with release of which poisons? Rapid rise and slow fall; Exotoxins released during incline; endotoxins occur during declin
How do you prevent staphylococcus food infections? 1. Refrigerate cooked foods immediately upon cooling; 2. Use proper cooling techniques (> or = 41F w/i 6 hrs); 3. Instruct proper hygiene for food handlers.
Created by: Hasti44
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