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AP Biology Unit 2

Chapters 7, 8, 11, & 12 (Cells)

What are the membran structures that function in active transport? integral proteins
What proteins are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and show fluctuationsin concentration during the cell cycle? cyclins
What type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils phospholipids and steriods? smooth endoplasmic
What can a cell thathas the following molecules and structures come from? (DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria) plant or animal
What process helps materials leave a cell? exocytosis
If there are 20 centomeres ina cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis? 20
Whst does the movement of potassium into an animal cell require? (Hint: two possible answeres) an energy source such as ATP or a protein gradient
Who was the first to propose that cell membranes are phospholipid bilayers? E. Gorter & F. Grendel
Who said that the membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a fluid bilayer of phosopholipids? S.Singer & G. Nickleson
If there are 20 chromatids in a cell at metaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis? 10
What are the three stages of cell signaling? signal reception, singnal transduction, and cellular responce
Ions difuse down their what? concentration gradients
What is a small molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, usually a larger one? ligand
Does facilitated diffusion require energy from ATP hydrolysis? no
What would be inhibited by a drug that specifically blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins? receptor tyrosine kinase activity
What is the first step in the M phase of the cell cycle? prophase
What is the second step in the M phase of the cell cycle? prometaphase
What is the third step in the M phase of the cell cycle? metaphase
What is the fourth step in the M phase of the cell cycle? anaphase
What is the fifth step in the M phase of the cell cycle? telophase
What is the final steo in the M phase of the cell cycle? cytokinesis
What is the name of the special region on a duplicated chromosome that holds the sister chromatds together? centromere
What kind of cell is split through the formation of a cell plate rather than a clevage furrow? plant cell
What process usually begins when the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way? transduction
What are the membrane structures that function on active transport? integral proteins
Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which structures found in animal cells? gap junctions
What type of cells are not subject to cell cycle controls? cancer cells
cells that are in a nondividing state are in which phase? Gzero
What type of cells stop dividing at random points in the cell cycle when they do stop? cancer cells
What type of signaling involves secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging a local regulator into the extracellular fluid? paracine
What are carrier molecules in the membrane and metabolic energy required for? active transport
In mammalian cells recieve a go-ahead signal at the G1 what happens? ceomplete the cell cycle and divide
What type of cells do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in cultrure? cancer cells
What type of cell contains no membrane bound organelles? prokaryotes
What cells are thought to have evolved from ancient prokaryotes living symbiotically? eukaryotes
What organelle is a selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer? plasma membrane
What surrounds the nucleus and has pores that allows only certain substances in and out? nuclear envelope
What handles protein synthasis? ribosomes
What organelle detoxifies drugs and poisons? smooth ER
Where do microtubles grow? centromes
What consists of 3 different catagories of fibers? cytoskeleton
What functions as the cell's "post office"? golgi apparatus
What organelle increases it's surface area through cristae? mitochondria
What organelle detoxifies the cell? peroxisomes
Where does photosynthesis occur? chloroplast
What organells funtions as the "trash can" of the cell? lysosome
What is the main component of the cell wall? cellulose
What type of intercellular junction occur when sections of animal cells become fused water-tight? tight junctions
What allows substances to move from plant cell to plant cell? plasmodesmata
What fasten adjacent cells together into sheets? desmosomes
What makes up the cilia and the flagella? microtubles
What are the channels between cells through which ions, sugars, and molecules can pass? gap junctions
What proteins are found throughout the bilayer of the plasma mebrane? integral proteins
What proteins are found loosely bound to the surface of the plasma membrane? peripheral proteins
What is crucial for cell-cell rocognition? carbohydrates
What is the type of transport that requires no energy? passive transport
What is the diffusion of water? osmosis
What type of passive transport usually moves ions and polar molecules? facilitated diffusion
What type of transport requires energy? active transport
What moves substances from low concentraton to high concentration? active transport
What moves substance from high concentration to low concentration? passive transport
What is the process in which cells engulf other substances? phagocytosis
What is the process is often compared to a cell "drinking"? pinocytosis
When do ligans bind receptros to the surface of a cell and form a vesicle? receptor-mediated endocytosis
When ligand bind to a receptor what does it usually cause a change in? shape
What is cAMP an example of? secondary messengers
What is occuring during 90% of the cell cycle? interphase
What is the part of the cell cycle in which the division of the cytoplasm occurs? cytokinesis
What part of the cell cycle is nerve cells? Gzero
Is cell division density-dependent or density-independent? density-dependent
What holds two sister chromatids together? kinetochore
During what step of the cell cycle does cytokinesis begin? telophase
Created by: atryan
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