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12. Plants & Animals

Nutrients

TermDefinition
Circulatory System the system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands.
Respiratory System the set of organs that allows a person to breathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body.
Digestive System begins with the mouth and extends through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, ending with the rectum and anus.
Muscular System an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
Stomata/Stoma a small opening on the underside of leaves that lets in carbon dioxide and can release water
Guard Cells a pair of curved cells that surround a stoma, allowing it to become larger or smaller (open or close) according to the pressure within the cells.
Cuticle the outer layer of living tissue (outer layer in plants)
Xylem the vascular tissue that transports water and minerals that are absorAbed by the roots.
Roots the part of a plant that attaches it to the ground or to a support, typically underground, conveying water and nourishment to the rest of the plant via numerous branches and fibers.
Transpiration the process where plants absorb water through the roots and then give off water vapor through pores (stomata) in their leaves.
Veins/arteries tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart and oxygen rich blood to the body.
Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
Oxygen (O2) a colorless, odorless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration.
Water (H2O) a colorless, transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain and is the basis of the fluids of living organisms.
Glucose (C6H12O6) a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism
Chloroplast an organelle (in green plant cells) that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur (making ATP)
Nutrient absorption absorbing substances into cells or across the tissues and organs through diffusion or osmosis.
Transport take or carry from one place to another.
phloem the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
Cellular respiration the chemical process that generates most of the energy in the cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions of an organism run. (glucose in/ATP out)
Shoots the above ground parts of the plant.
Created by: cfhsbiology