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Immuno Exam 1 L2

Anatomical barriers skin, surfaces at body openings, mucus membranes and ducts of secretory glands, dry skin
Chemical Barriers Stomach acid, skin secretions, antimicrobial molecules
Three types of white blood cells involved in phagocytosis? Neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils
Lysosomes Organelles that a phagocyte breaks foreign particles apart inside of once engulfed
Phagocytosis Have a lysosome full of antimicrobials (granules you can see) that break down pathogens by engulfing them
Scientific name for WBCs? Leukocytes
Scientific name for RBCs? Erythrocyte
Neutrophil Make up 60-70% of circulating WBCs. Recruited to sites of infection as a response to inflammatory signals from innate cells. Self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders. Average life span is a few days
Neutrophils release what? Release antimicrobial proteins and tissue remodeling proteins, phagocytosis the pathogen
Oder of leukocyte responders? Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils
Monocytes become? Macrophages or dendritic cells after migrating to tissue
Macrophage= Considered APC show to B or T cell so they know to make antibodies if they see it, MOST efficient phagocyte, lifespan is months, large
APC stands for? Antigen Presenting Cell
Dendritic= Can go through phagocytosis, are APC and activate naïve T cells for the FIRST time. Super big link between innate and adaptive (*how we turn on second phase of immunity), major role in innate response to infections
Monocytes Make up 5-10% of circulating leukocytes, circulate only a few hours, migrate into tissue and differentiate into phagocytic cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells
Natural Killer (NK) cells NOT phagocytic, nonspecific innate immune resposne, destroy virus-infected body cells, attack abnormal body cells that could become cancerous
How do NK cells attack another cell? They mount an attack on the cells membrane with perforins and protease causing the cell to lyse
Inflammatory response Innate. Rapid increase in leukocytes in the blood within a few hours. Fever triggered. Inhibits growth of some microbes, facilitating phagocytosis and speeding up tissue repair. Sever tissue damage/infection causes widespread response
How is fever triggered in infammatory response? By toxins from pathogens or pyrogens released by certain leukocytes. Raise temp enough to either kill or inhibit bacteria cells
Septic shock Characterized by high fever and low blood pressure; most common cause of death in US critical care units. (body tring to fix but only makes worse)
T cell do NOT make? Antibodies
Process of adaptive immunity? New invaders take longer to identify and an organism will remain ill until new antibodies can be crafted. Old particles are quickly recognized and a person may never become ill from that invader again (making that person immune)
Two main types of lymphocytes? B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells)
Both types of lymphocytes circulate throught? Blood and lymph
Both types of lymphocytes are concentrated in? Spleen, lymph nodes and other lmphatic tissues
In general terms lymphocytes do what? Speciliaze in recognizing different types of antigens and carry out specific defensive actions that complement each other
Antigen A foreign invader that elicits a specific response by lymphocytes (T cells and B cells). Each antigen has a particular molecular shape. Stimulates B cells to secrete antibodies  antibody generator
Antigen receptors Are membrane proteins on lymphocytes responsible for recognizing antigens. B cells: antibody (immunoglobulin) and T cells: T cell receptors
Many infections never make it past the _____ defense? Innate
Infections/bacteria that get past innate defese trigger the production and release of _______? Antibodies
Antibodies Are proteins that latch onto, damage, clump, and slow foreign particles. Bind only to one specific binding site, known as an antigen
B-cells oder of events 1 cell recognizes antigens, activated, replicated itself, make “plasma” cells & attacks antigens
Memory B cells Are long lived so if you get exposed again you recognize & attack infection
Plasma cells Secret antibodies to do the attacking & then die (live a weekish)
Cytotoxic T cells release? Enzymes that attack the membrane, like cancer cells
Cytotoxic T-Cells recognize? Infected human cells and cancer cells. Some T-cells will attack these infected cells, quickly kill them, and then continue to search for more cells to kill. There are several subsets of T-cells
Basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are what immunity? Innate
Basophils,eosinophils and mast cells are used for? Are used for multicellular parasites, also seen during allergic reactions (don’t have many basophils)
Basophils are full of? Histamine and heparin
Complement System Small soluble proteins in serum (humoral components). Interplays or complements the roles of both the innate and adaptive immune system
Chemokines mediate? Chemotaxis
Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity 1Lymphocyte clones mature in generative lymphoid organs, in the absence of antigens 2clones of mature lymphocytes specific for diverse antigens enter lymphoid tissues 3antigen-specific clones activated by antigens 4antigen-soecific immune responses occur
Created by: s514149