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DNA quiz

replication DNA making copies of itself
dna helicase Breaks hydorgen bonds opening DNA forming replication bubbles
replication bubble Where replication occurs. Serve as a template to build a new DNa strand.
replication fork The ends of the replication bubbles where replication begins
dna polymerse Brings complementary nucletodies to the replication fork
leading strand Continious and towards fork
lagging strand Replication occurs in short fragments called okazaki fragments. Goes away from fork. Discontinuouse
okazaki fragment Short segments from lagging strand replication which are later connected by ligase
semi-conservative replication Each strand in a dna molecule is used as a template to build a new strand using complementary base pairing creating a new molecule with one original dna strand and one new dna strand
year and what Gregor Mendel 1866 demonstarted thT parents pass traits to offspring- thought traits were contained in a molecule
year and what Freidrich Meisher 1869 isolated dna from cell nucleus and named it nucleic acid
year and what R.A Altman 1889 determined the chemical composition of DnA
year and what Phoebus Levene 1919 determined the structure of a DNA nucleotide
year and what Frederick griffith 1928 transformation occurs
year and what Oswald Avery 1944 transformation shows DNA is genetic material
year and what Erwin Chargaff 1949 base pairing rules
year and what Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase 1952 bacteria and viruses show DNA is genetic material -radioactive
year and what Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin 1952 xray diffraction photograph of DNA
year and what James Watson and Francis Crick 1953 first successful 3D molecule of DNA. Won nobel prize
nucleotide What DNA is made up of
deoxyribose 5 carbon sugar in DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid Shat DNA stands for
complementary base pairing A=T C=-G
double helix Shape of DNA
central dogma of molecular biology 1958 francis crick. Dna codes for production of rna. Rna codes for production of protein. Protein does not code for the production of protein rna or dna. "Once information has passed into protein it cannot get back out again"
fission after a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms
binary fission usual method of prokaryote cell division. single circular DNA molecule first replicates, then each copy attaches ti different part of cell membrane, and cell pulls apart creating two identical cells. genetically identical
budding form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. parent and offspring different sizes. ex hydra
fragmentation breaking of the body into two parts with subsequent regeneration. if an animal is capable of fragmentation and the part is big enough a separate individual will grow ex worm and starfish
parthenogenesis a form of asexual reproduction where an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized. egg will develop by self. occurs in invertebrates.
hermaphroditism occur in animals where one individual has both male + female reproductive parts produce sperm and eggs self fertilize or mate with other of their species-fertilizes both + both produce offspring self fertilization common in nonmotile animals ex clam worms
rhizomes plants such as grasses, cattails, and sedges produce underground stems. as grow through soil, periodically produce adventitious roots and a new above ground shoot. if it dies after, a new separate genetically identical plant will have been formed.
runners horizontally growing stems that produce few if any leaves- above ground. at spot where leaf would normally develop a node these plants will produce adventitious roots down into the soil and new above ground shoots.
tubers modified rhizomes. formed in plants such as Irish potatoes. develop when specialized stem branches grow down into the ground and swell up with starch containing cells. buds on the tubers will grow into new plants.
bulbs onions, chives, lilies over winter in this form. very short stem which is surrounded by fleshy leaves. in the spring the shoot apex begins to grow using the nutrients stored in the leaves.
advantages of asexual not as complex, requires less energy, numerous offspring produced without costing the parent a lot of energy or time, most likely to succeed in same stable area as parents
disadvantages asexual does not lead to a variation between organisms meaning the entire group can be wiped out by a disease or if the stable environment changes.
advantages of sexual allows for variation the most fundamental element of evolution, creates species that can adapt to new environments and cannot be wiped out by single disease
disadvantages sexual when colonizing a new area, finding a sexual mate is difficult, if an organism is non-motile it is difficult to find another organism to mate with, if environment is harsh the more delicate organs or stages of sexual may not be able to survive
what and when Mathew Meselson and Franklin Stahl 1957. conducted an experiment proving replication is semiconservative
Created by: edenbreslauer