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Immuno Exam 1

Innate immunity – Rapid, always on – Non-specific – First line of defense – Does not lead to lasting immunity – Includes physical barriers to entry, phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, and complement proteins
Adaptive immunity – Slow, must be initiated – Develops as an “adaptation” to immunity – Specific – Results in immunological memory – Includes T and B cells and proteins known as antibodies
Antibodies Include T and B cells. Interact with antigens (substances that stimulate antibody generation) and Neutralize toxins, agglutinate bacteria
Anatomical and chemical barriers are innate or adaptive? Innate
Good and bad thing about Adaptive? Specific recognition (recognizes 1 thing and 1 thing only), slow (day or two), peaks in a week
We take advantage of adaptive immunity how? Through vaccines
Innate is good and bad because? Good b/c it is fast, within hours and bad because it has no memory and no lasting immunity
T and B cells fall under adaptive or innate? Adaptive. They are proteins known as antibodies. Antibodies are able to recognize antigens. Antigens stimulate antibody generation. Affecter functions= how it influences immunology (like aggulation)
Two things innate misses? Specificity (has broad recognition) and memory.
Skin barriors is what type of immunity? Innate
Inflammation is what type of response? Innate
Which immunity is known as border patrol and which is “search and seizure”? Innate is border patrol and adaptive is search and seizure
Primary role of immune system? Attack against foreign entities, body’s defense against disease causing organisms such as pathogens and parasites
Immunity means? An organism has resistance against foreign entities, disease causing organisms or harmful substances. Two types: innate and passive
Active immune= YOUR body produces antibodies because you were exposed by getting sick to actual disease-causing antigen OR purposefully infected (vaccines)
How long does active immunity last? Depends on antigen. Some have new variations that our body doesn’t recognize requiring additional vaccins- flu shot. Some vaccines last for a lifetime- the chicken pox shot. Some pathogens require a booster shot to remind the immune system of the antigen.
How many vaccines do we get? Although the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends certain vaccines, many individuals go without them. Those especially susceptible include travelers and students. Meningitis is strongly recommended
Passive immune= You DON’T produce antibodies on your own. Passed on from mother to fetus OR passed on from mother to breast feeding baby and these antibodies last for short period of time until they degrade. Antiserum provides passive immunity.
Why are no B-cells passed to fetus Because the placenta barrier stops whole cells from passing, *only 1 subtype can pass*
Vaccines= Heat killed or chemical killed or attenuated bacteria
Smallpox is cause by? Variola minor or major bacteria
Attenuated means? Weakened
Pathogens Bacteria, fungi, viruses
Parasites Worms, parasitic protozoa
Secondary role of immune system? 1) Promote normal functioning within the body (wound repair) 2) remove malfunctioning cells (malignant) 3) Can also cause disease (allergies, autoimmunity)
Why is the ‘immune system’ less discrete than other anatomical or physiological systems? It is a collection of organs, blood-borne and tissue-borne cells, proteins, molecules
Where is the immune system? Point anywhere on body
Common goal of immune system? Distinguish ‘self’ from ‘non-self’. Remove or destroy anything that doesn’t look like self
The history of immunology begins with? Variolation
Inoculation was pioneered where? India and China in 16th century. It was done by snorting powered scabs fro infected people with smallpox
Variolation Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola).Powered scabs from people infected with smallpox were used to protect against the disease. Infecting people was efficient b/c fatality rate was 0.5-2
Smallpox Looks a lot like the flu. Except you get flat red spots that blister, puss, break open, scab over, leave scars ALL over the body (nasal, mouth & skin)
Smallpox impact on Europe 8-20% of all deaths (about 400,000 died in Europe alone). 98% fatality rate for infants and 20-60% fatality rate for adults. 1/3 of surviving people were left blind.
Lady Montagu Europe. Had her children inoculated and they survived. King tests on prisoners and orphans in 1720s.
Edward Jenner *SWITCHED from variolation to vaccination= foundation of field of immunology. Showed that vaccination with cowpox could protect against smallpox.
Methods of Edward Jenner surveys in towns, sent other physicians cowpox vaccines, *famous experiment on healthy child named James Phipps by inoculating him with cowpox from a woman named Sarah Nelmes and then exposed him to smallpox two weeks later and the child stayed heathy
When was smallpox eradicated? In 1980. The vaccine created in 1798 (100 years before next one for rabies)
Robert Koch Inoculated a healthy rabbit with anthrax from lymph nodes of infected rabbit and showed that the isolated bacteria could transfer disease. Founder of microbiology
Kochs Postulates 1) Bacteria causes disease bacteria from diseased organism can make another sick 2) Isolate bacteria and it grows 3) Same bacteria cells can be isolated from newly diseased organism
Louis Pasteur Grew bacteria that caused cholera in fowl and found that attenuated bacteria didn’t. Studied this with cholera, anthrax and rabies. Famous for sheep and Meister boy experiment
Attenuated bacteria Weakened and lost ability to cause disease
Metchnikoff discovered? Phagocytic cells that ingest microbes and particles. cellular immunity
Macrophages Cells that injest whole cells. These cells give cellular immunity
Metchnikoff 1880. He is one of the first people (1880) to understand what is happening within the body. He looked at starfish and noticed cells that didn’t have to do with digestion but still broke stuff down. He discovered macrophages.
Behring and Kitasato 1890. They came up with something different than Metchnikoff. Their idea is that immunity comes from the blood serum. This is called hemorole immunity. They reveled that immunity to Diphtheria could be conferred by soluble anti-toxin in the blood
Cell conferred immunity discovered by? Metchnikoff
Blood sera conferred immunity discovered by? Behring and Kitasato
Paul Ehrlich supported what type of immunity? He created what? Supported hemorole immunity. Helped develop anti-serum for diphtheria. He created tissue staining dyes to distinguish different blood cell type. Made accurate drawing says antigens interacted with side chains that make secreted antibodies.
Side chain theory of antibody formation? Created by Paul Ehrlich. Antigens interact with side-chains (receptors), resulting in the secretion of excess receptors (antibodies)
Immune system has both _____ and _________ components Cellular and humoral
1950’s discovery of T and B cells linked? Later linked lymphocytes to both cellular and humoral immunity
Two main branches of the immune system? Innate and adaptive immune systems are in humans and all other vertebrates
Immune response once a pathogen breaks physical barriers? 1st response is fast, nonspecific, inflammatory= innate 2nd response is slower but specific for pathogen= adaptive
Vaccines work how? 1)Antigens are deliberately introduced into the immune system to produce immunity. 2)Because the bacteria has been killed or weakened, minimal symptoms occur. 3)Vaccines have eradicated or severely limited several diseases, such as polio and smallpox
Pasteur’s two famous experiments 1)Sheep ½ were injected with heat killed Bacillus anthracis. Later infects heard & half that didn’t get exposed to heat killed form ALL died 2)Joseph Meisterbiten by rabid dog & P administered vaccine for 13 days. Meister became caretaker for P Institute
Created by: s514149