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Endocrine System

what are the two communication systems? hormonal and neuronal
what is hormonal communication? slow, more important operations, more specific and more permanent
neuronal communication? quick and temporary
what are hormones? they are chemical messengers
what are endocrine Glands? glands that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland and the adrenal gland
what are exocrine glands? glands that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ. such as the sweat glands, salivary gland and the kidney
how do exocrine glands secrete? through a canal or duct
what is a target cell? these are cells that have the correct receptor for the specific hormone
what is a steroid hormone? made from lipid molecules, they are lipid soluble and are able to pass through a plasma membrane
what is the action of a steroid hormone? 1. hormone passes through plasma membrane and binds to a receptor, creating a hormone-receptor complex 2. hormone-receptor complex acts as a transcription factor, switching enzyme synthesis on or off
steroid hormones are secreted by which organs? the testes, which product testosterone, the ovaries, which produce estrogen and the adrenal cortex, which produces cortisol
what is a peptide hormone? made from protein molecules
what is the action of a peptide hormone? 1. hormone joins to a specific receptor made from proteins on the plasma membrane as the hormone is not lipid soluble and cannot pass through 2. triggers a second messenger molecule to transfer the message inside the cell
example of peptide hormone? oxytocin
what is a secondary messenger? a molecule that relays messages in a cell from a receptor on a cell membrane to the final destination
where is the adrenal gland located? on top of the kidneys
what hormones does the adrenal gland secrete? adrenaline and cortisol
what is the action of adrenaline? 1. the hormone circulates the blood stream looking for it's target cells, when it finds one it fits into the receptor which has a shape complementary to the hormone 2. the hormone activates the enzyme cyclase 3. cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
what is the master gland? hypothalamus and pituitary gland
what is the cascade effect? the release of small amounts of one hormone from the hypothalamus can result in the production of the final hormone
example of cascade effect? hypothalamus (inhibits production of the releasing factor) - releasing factor - anterior pituitary gland (inhibits TSH release) - thyroid stimulating hormone - thyroid gland - thyroxine in blood stream
what does the thyroid gland release and what are its functions? thyroxine- metabolism
what does the pituitary gland release and what are its functions? GH- growth hormone ADH- regulates water balance
what does the adrenal gland release and what are its functions? adrenaline- fight or flight mechanism
what does the pancreas release and what are its functions? insulin- decreases blood glucose glucagon- increases blood glucose
what do the ovaries release and what are its functions? oestrogen- female development hormone progesterone- maintains uterine lining
what do the testes release and what are its functions? testosterone- male development hormone
where is the pancreas located? behind the stomach
what do the pancreatic exocrine cells secrete? digestive enzyme
what are lipase? works with the bile from the liver to break down fat molecules so they be absorbed and used in the body
what are proteases? break down proteins, they help keep the intestine free of parasites such as bacteria and yeast
what are amylase? break down carbohydrates into sugars which are more easily absorbed into the body
how do the pancreatic enzymes reach the small intestine? via the pancreatic duct
what is pancreatic juice? clear alkaline digestive fluid, it's alkaline because of a high concentration of bicarbonate ions
what is the islet of langerhans? endocrine cells in the pancreas, including alpha and beta
which cells in the islet of langerhans detects that there is too much blood glucose? beta cells
which cells in the islet of langerhans detects that there is too little blood glucose? alpha cells
standard pathway response for too much glucose? stimulus; too much blood glucose - receptors; beta cells - communication system; pancreas - effectors; endocrine cells - response; the islet of langerhans releases insulin, glucose is then converted to glycogen
what are the target cells for insulin? hepatocytes, muscle cells and some other body parts
standard pathway response for too little glucose? stimulus; too little blood glucose - receptors; alpha cells - communication system; pancreas - effectors; glucagon released - repsonse; glucagon converts glycogen into glucose
what are the target cells for glucagon? Hepatocytes
Created by: deannarosee