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Test 1: chapters 1-4

What is defined as poverty? Poverty is living on less than $2 a day. 1/2 of the world's population lives at this level. Extreme poverty (1/4 of world) is associated with shorter life, illiteracy, and lack of adequate nutrition, clean water, health care.
What is the human use of material and energy? Consumption
Have approx. 20% of world's people and 80% of the wealth Highly developed countries: US, Japan, Canada, and Europe
An amount of land, freshwater and ocean required to supply a persons needs (food, water, housing, transportation and waste disposal) is? Ecological Footprint
A process that can be continued indefinitely without depleting resources or causing stress is? Sustainability
Who wrote an essay titled, "The Tragedy of the Commons" about our inability to solve complex environmental problems because of the struggle between short-term gain and long term environmental sustainability. (greed) Ecologist Garrett Hardin (1968)
What is economic growth that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their needs? Sustainable development
Occurs in rich countries and results in pollution and degradation of the environment. Consumption overpopulation
What is the use of goods and services to satisfy basic human needs and improve the quality of life but that also minimize resource use? Sustainable Consumption
Volunteer simplicity is: Type of sustainable consumption that recognizes individual happiness and quality of life are not necessarily linked to accumulating material goods.
A branch of of philosophy that focuses on human values. values are principles that an individual or a society considers important. (Right and wrong). Ethics
a field study that considers the moral basis of environmental responsibility. Environmental ethics
A worldview based on human superiority over nature, the unrestricted use of natural resources, and economic growth to manage an expanding industrial base. (bible) Western worldview
a worldview based on harmony with nature, a spiritual respect for life, and the belief that all other species have an equal worth (biocentric --> life centered) Deep ecology worldview
The right of every citizen to adequate protection from environmental hazards: Environmental justice
The careful management of land and resources while you use them. Conservation
Involves setting aside undisturbed areas, maintaining them in a pristine state and protecting them from human activities. (could mean you don't use them) Preservation (protect)
Painted lifelike portraits of birds and animals in their natural surroundings that aroused public interest in the wildlife of North America. John James Audubon
Writer that lived for 2 years on the shore of Walden Pond near Concord Massachusetts, where he wrote "Walden" an essay on how people could simplify their life and live in more harmony with nature. Henry David Thoreau
26th President who said "Speak softly and carry a big stick". He designated 21 new national forests totaling 16 million acres. Was a utilitarian conservationist. Theodore Roosevelt
Born in Scotland and immigrated to US."Biocentric preservationist," who founded the Sierra club, a national conservation organization that focuses on environmental issues. John Muir
32 President during the Great Depression. The federal gov. financed many conservation projects to provide jobs for the unemployed. Reestablished the Civilian Conservation Corps: employed 500,000 young men to plant trees... etc protect natural resources Franklin Roosevelt
Wildlife biologist who wrote "Game Management" and "A Sand Country Almanac". supported conserving wilderness and taxing sporting weapons and ammunition funded wildlife management research. Aldo Leopold
Wrote famous "Wilderness Essay in 1962 which helped create support for the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964 Wallace Stegner
A marine biologist who wrote "Silent Spring" (1962) which increased public awareness of the dangers of pesticides like DDT that were poisoning birds and wildlife and contaminating food supplies. The book ultimately led to restrictions on pesticides. Rachel Carson
Published "The Population Bomb" When Earth's pop. was only 3.5 bil (1968); it describes the stress a huge pop. has on earth's life support system. Raised public awareness of the dangers of overpopulation, triggering debates on how to deal with issues. Paul Ehrlich
Created by: 991482560928082