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SLS Bio12 Digestion

SLS Bio12 Digestion (C.Chan)

TermDefinition
absorption Digested food molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. This means that they pass through the wall of the small intestine and into our bloodstream
anaerobic bacteria Bacteria that do not require O2, carry out anaerobic digestion
anus pening at the opposite end of humanl's digestive tract from the mouth
appendix a tube that connects to the cecum, sits in the lower right abdomen, appendix acts as a storehouse for good bacteria it also digests leaves as primates
bile A bitter fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile is discharged into the small intestine when needed to aid in the digestion of fats
capillary smallest of blood vessels
cardiac sphincter a sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, opening at the approach of food that can then be swept into the stomach by rhythmic peristaltic waves.
chemical digestion the process in the alimentary canal by which food is broken up by the action of enzymes, and converted into a substance suitable for absorption and assimilation into the body
digestive enzyme enzymes that are used in the digestive system, hydrolase of macromolecules
digestive tract series of organs in the digestive system through which food passes, nutrients are absorbed, and waste is eliminated.
duodenum The duodenum precedes the jejunum and ileum and is the shortest part of the small intestine, where most chemical digestion takes place
emulsification The breakdown of fat globules in the duodenum into tiny droplets, which provides a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol, assisted by bile
epiglottis The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped flap of cartilage located behind the tongue, at the top of the larynx, seal off the windpipe during eating, so that food is not accidentally inhaled.
esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the throat (pharynx) with the stomach, to carry food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach
gallbladder the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine
gastric juice a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion.
hydrochloric acid activates pepsinogen into the enzyme pepsin, which then helps digestion by breaking the bonds linking amino acids, a process known as proteolysis
insulin peptide hormone, regulates the metabolism of carbs and fats by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood to skeletal muscles and fat tissue by causing fat to be stored rather than used for energy, inhibits the production of glucose by the liver
intestinal juice clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls, completes protein digestion, enables lipase function
lacteals lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine, Villi of small intestine, showing bloodvessels and lymphatic vessels
large intestine (colon) final part of the digestive system. Its function is to reabsorb fluids and process waste products from the body and prepare for its elimination.
lipase an enzyme that breaks down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol
liver process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat
maltase secreted by the intestine then converts maltose into glucose
microvillus effectively increase the surface area of the cell and are useful for absorption and secretion functions (abundant in small intestine)
nuclease digestive enzymes that break nucleic acids like DNA and RNA into nucleotides
pancreas Produce enzymes/digestive juice secreted into the small intestine to further break down food after it has left the stomach.
pancreatic amylase enzymes work in a slightly acidic pH and breaks down starch
pancreatic juice an alkaline secretion of the pancreas containing enzymes that aid in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
pepsin an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides
pepsinogen Hydrochloric acid (HCl) converts pepsinogen to pepsin which breaks down proteins to peptide
peptidase an enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides.
peristalsis alternate contraction and relaxation, which pushes ingested food through the digestive tract towards its release at the anus.
pH measure of hydrogen ion concentration
pharynx the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth connecting them to the esophagus. its muscular walls function in the process of swallowing and it serves as a pathway for the movement of food from the mouth to the esophagus
physical digestion involves breaking food down into smaller pieces without making any chemical changes
protease an enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides.
pyloric sphincter a band of smooth muscle at the junction between the pylorus of the stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine, acts as a valve to controls the flow of partially digested food from the stomach to the small intestine.
rectum the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus
salivary amylase begins the digestive process by breaking down starch when you chew your food, converting it into maltose
salivary gland produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. It also helps break down carbohydrates and lubricates the passage of food down from the oro-pharynx to the esophagus to the stomach.
salivary juice/saliva moistening food, and helping to create a food bolus, so it can be swallowed easily, salivary amylase breaks down starch
small intestine absorption of nutrients and minerals.
sodium bicarbonate neutralize the high acidity of the chyme (food plus stomach acid) raising it to an alkaline pH of 7.1-8.2
stomach churning action of the stomach muscles physically breaks down the food. The stomach releases acids and enzymes for the chemical breakdown of food.
swallowing cause or allow (something, especially food or drink) to pass down the throat.
trypsin Tryptic digestion is a necessary step in protein absorption as proteins are generally too large to be absorbed through the lining of the small intestine.
villus increase intestinal absorptive surface area approximately 30-fold and 600-fold, respectively, providing exceptionally efficient absorption of nutrients in the lumen
Created by: 983180221738643