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What is the buffy coat of a hematocrit? Then thin whitish layer that contains leukocytes and platelets.
What is the definition of a hematocrit? The measure of the erythrocyte percentage that is present in a sample of blood.
What is plasma? The straw-colored, sticky fluid in blood that contains over 100 different dissolved solutes including nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, and products of cell activity, ions, and proteins.
Describe albumin. Accounts for 60% of plasma protein, acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through circulation, is an important blood buffer, and is the major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure.
What is osmotic pressure? The pressure that helps to keep water in the bloodstream.
What are the formed elements of blood? Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets
Describe hemoglobin. The protein that makes red blood cells red, binds easily and reversibly with oxygen, and carries most of the oxygen in blood.
What is hemoglobin made up of? A globin protein that is bound to the red heme pigment. Consists of four polypeptide chains - two alpha and two beta - each bound to a ringlike heme group.
What does containing hemoglobin in erythrocytes prevent? 1)the hemoglobin from breaking into fragments that would leak out of the bloodstream 2)from contributing to blood viscosity and osmotic pressure
What is oxyhemoglobin? Hemoglobin that has oxygen binded to the iron, assumes a three-dimensional shape, and turns ruby red.
What is hematopoiesis? Blood cell formation. Also known as hemopoiesis.
Where does most blood cell formation take place? In the red bone marrow.
What is a hematopoietic stem cell? Also known as a hemocytoblast. The cell origin of all the formed elements in blood.
What is erythropoiesis? Erythrocyte production.
How many molecules of oxygen can a hemoglobin molecule transport? Four o2 per hemoglobin molecule.
What does the term "committed cell" refer to? A committed cell is a blood cell precursor whose path of specialization is determined. For example, the proerythroblast can only become an erythrocyte, not one of the leukocytes.
What provides direct stimulus for erythrocyte formation? The glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin.
What can cause a drop in normal blood oxygen levels that triggers EPO formation? 1)Reduced numbers of red blood cells due to hemorrhage or excessive RBC destruction. 2)Insufficient hemoglobin per RBC (as in iron deficiency) 3)Reduced availability of oxygen, as might occur at high altitudes or during pneumonia.
How does blood doping, practiced by some athletes, affect the negative feedback cycle that involve erythropoiesis? Blood doping, which increases the number of RBCs in the circulation and thus increases the amount of oxygen being transported, would inhibit erythropoietin release by ending the stimulus for its formation.
What percent of the body's iron supply is found in hemoglobin? 65%.
What are ferritin and hemosiderin? Protein-iron complexes that store iron in the body.
What is transferrin? The transport protein that is loosely bound to iron for blood transport.
What is anemia? A condition in which the blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.
What are some of the causes of anemia? 1)An insufficient number of red blood cells. 2)Low hemoglobin content. 3)Abnormal hemoglobin.
Name and describe the different conditions that reduce the red blood cell count. 1)Hemorrhagic anemias - result from blood loss. 2)Hemolytic anemia - erythrocytes rupture, or lyse, prematurely. 3)Aplastic anemia - may result from destruction or inhibition of red marrow by certain drugs and chemicals, ionizing radiation, or viruses
What is iron-deficient anemia? Generally a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemias, but also results from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorbtion. Treated with iron supplements.
What is thalassemias? "Sea blood", typically seen in people of Mediterranean ancestry, such as Greeks and Italians. One of the globin chains is absent or faulty, and the erythrocytes are thin, delicate, and deficient of hemoglobin.
How would you expect blood levels of bilirubin to change in a person that has severe liver disease? It would increase because the liver's processing functions are impaired.
What is diapedesis? The process taking place when white blood cells slip out of the capillary blood vessels.
What is amoeboid motion? How leukocytes move through tissue spaces.
What is positive chemotaxis? The following of the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes by a leukocyte.
What is leukocytosis? A white blood cell count over 11,000 cells/microliter. This condition is normal hemostatic response to an infection in the body.
What cells are granulocytes? Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.
Describe a neutrophil. Most abundant leukocyte in the blood. Multi-lobed nucleus(3 - 6). Has two types of granules. Function is to phagocytize bacteria.
Describe an eosinophil. Bi-lobed nucleus. Function is to kill parasitic worms and inactivate some inflamatory chemicals release during allergic reactions.
Describe a basophil. Rarest white blood cell. U or S shaped nucleus.
What are the agranulocytes? Lymphocytes and monocytes.
Created by: blt2122