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ES EMAP Chapter 6


Volcano An opening in the earth that erupts gases, ash, and lava
Crater Steep-walled depression around a volcano's vent
Vent An opening in the earth through which gases, ash, and lava erupt
Hot Spot Areas between the earth's mantle and core that are unusually hot
Basaltic Refers to magma low in silicate materials. It is usually thin and flows easily
Granitic Refers to magma high in silicate materials. It is usually thick and flows only with difficulty
Shield Volcano A broad volcano with gently sloping sides
Tephra Bits of rock solidified from lava ejected into the air
Cinder Cone Volcano A steep-sided, loosely packed volcano
Composite Volcano A volcano with alternating layers of tephra and lava flows
Krakatau Island cinder cone in Indonesia. Violent eruption in 1883 caused global temperature to drop by 1.5 degrees.
Paricutin Cinder cone in Mexico. Cinder cone grew in farmers field and eventually covered neighboring towns and villages
Vesuvius Composite cone in Italy. Eruption in 79 A.D. buried the city of Pompeii.
Tambora Island composite cone in Indonesia. Most violent eruption in recorded history. Violent eruption in 1815 caused "volcanic winter", resulting in the worst famine of the 1800's.
Kilauea Shield cone of Hawaii
Laccolith A dome-shaped pluton, made from viscous magma injected between strata of rock near the surface
Pluton A body of intrusive igneous rock
Batholith Extremely large pluton formed deep within the earth when large volumes of magma cool
Dike Pluton formed from magma cross-cut through existing rock layers
Sill Flat pluton formed when magma is injected between existing rock strata
Strata Rock layers
Neck Pluton formed from magma in a vent cooling
Caldera A large depression caused by the collapse of the top of a volcano
Created by: MrGross