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SLS Bio12DigestionRY

SLS Bio12 Digestion

Absorption The taking in of substance particles , generally in molecular or ionic form. this is the process by which food nutrients enter the villi of the ileum.
Anerobic Bacteria Bacteria that do not require oxygen. Do not grow on solid media in room air
Anus the opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body. End of the digestion tract.
Appendix a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals. Filled with good bacteria.
bile a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
capillary any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
cardiac sphincter a sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach, opening at the approach of food that can then be swept into the stomach by rhythmic peristaltic waves.
chemical digestion Hydrolytic reaction that reduce food molecules to monomers by enzyme activity. Occurs in the mouth, stomach and, duodenum.
digestive enzye Hydrolytic enzyme that chemically breaks down food molecules into monomers. Foundin the saliva, gastric juices, pancreatic juices, and intestinal juices.
digestive tract Tube that conducts food through the body from the mouth to the anus. Specialized into organsand has accessory organs attached, all which function to digest the food.
duodenum First portion of the small intestine. Food material are release from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter.Majority of digestion takes place here as bile and pancreatic juices enter here.
emulsification making of emulsion by the physical suspension of immiscible substances in a solute. Bile is a emulsifier increasing surface area.
epiglottis flat of tissue at the top of the trachea. It reflexivly closes during swallowing preventing food to enter the air way.
esophagus located behind the trachea and leads to the stomach. Carries a bolus from the mounth to the stomach.
gall blasser thin walled storage sac attached to the underside of the liver. Stores bile and is released into the duodenu,mand emulsifies fat.
gastric juice digestive secretion formed by the stomach. Relesed in the form of gastrin into the blood, allows time for the stomach to digest
hydrochloric acid Highly corrosive, strong mineral acid. It is present endogenously as the acid component of gastric juice and is found in the stomach.
insulin is a protein hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells.
intestinal juice digestive secretion of the small intestine. Contains a variety of enzymes that compleate chemical digestion.
lacteals beginnings of the villi and small intestin. Transports the products of fat digestion away from the intestines.
large intestine (colon) begins at the ileocaeacal valve. Four main sections, ascending, transverse, descendinng colons and rectum.Also absorbs water left from the digestion process.
lipase lipid digestion enzyme. Produced by the pancreas and enter duodenum as a component of pancreatic juice.
liver largest inner organ, produces bile, converts ammonina into urea, stores glucose and glycogen and produces globulins and much more.
maltase disaccharides that catalyses and hydrolisis of maltase as well as the dehydration synthesis of glucose molecules to make maltose. Produced by small intestine and is in intestinal juice.
microvillus membraneous entention that line the villi. Increase surface area in the villi, increasing absorption of digestion products.
nuclease a nucleic-acid digestion enzyme. Components of pancreatic and intestinal juices.
pancreas gland posterior to the stomach that had endo and exocine functions. Islets of Langerhans produce the hormones imsulin and glucagon. Exocretin gland produces pancreatic juice.
pancreatic amylase component of pancreatic juice that digests starch into maltose
pancreatic juice exocrine secretion from the pancrease. Contain pancreatic amylase, trypsin, lipase, nucleases, sodium bicarbonate and water.
pepsin a protese enzyme.
pepsinogen a component of gastric juice. HCl another component of gastric juice activates it. Breaks some peptide bond.
peptidase An enzyme that breaks peptide bonds.
peristalsis Smooth muscel contrations on long tubler structures.It accounts of swallowing and for the moevment of material along the intestinal tract.
pH measure of amount of hydrogen inos in a solution. Neutral is 7 higher is basic and lower is acidic.
pharynx a region in the bath of the mouth where both food and air travel. Has a opening forr both air and food. Epiglottis protects the opening of the trachea.
physical digestion mechanical breaking apart of food materials in the digestive system.Occurs in the mouth, stomach and duodenum.
protease protein digesting enzyme. Usually in the form of pepsinogen or trysinogen.
pyloric sphincter muscular constriction valve at the bottom of the stomach. Is relaxes to permit chyme into the duodenum, so it can be neutralized for further digestion.
rectum last portion of the large intestine stores feces until defecation.
salivary amylase A starch digestion enzyme that is a component of saliva. Product or amylase is maltose.
salivary gland There are three in the mouth region that is a exocrine gland that delivers mucus and salivary amylase to the mouth.
salivary juice/saliva Combination of salivary amylase and mucus that is produced and delivered to the mouth through salivary glands.
small intestine Orgain in the digestive system that lyes between the stomach and large intestine, and is the longest organ. It has three parts, duodenum, jejunum and the ileum. It functions are as a transporter and it absorbs nutrients.
sodium bicarbonate buffering component of pancreatic juice. Maintain the chyme at around 7.5(optimal)
stomach a J shaped organ in the digestive system. It has three layers that allows it to church food. It functions as storage of food that has been swallowed, (2L), physical digestion, and Chemical digestion.
swallowing reflexive action that initiates the movement of a food bolus down the esophogus.
trypsin an enzyme present in pancreatic juice.Produces by trypsinogen, enters the duodenum to digest proteins
villus finger-like particles on the inner wall of the ileum. Contain blood capilaries and lacteas that absorbe things during digestion
Created by: Robbieyelland



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