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SLS Bio12DigestionHH

SLS Bio12 Digestion HH

TermDefinition
absorption cells moving across the tissues or organs into cells through diffusion; e.g. absorption of nutrients
anaerobic bacteria bacteria that are capable of living in the absence of oxygen
anus opening at the end of the alimentary canal where solid waste exits
appendix the tube shaped sac at the lower end of the large intestine which serves no purpose to us
bile produced by the gall bladder and is used in digestion to emulsify lipids
capillary any fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venuoles; brings in other nutrients than fat
cardiac sphincter ring of muscle at the top of the stomach that prevents food from moving back up the esophagus
chemical digestion chemicals in the body separate large food molecules into smaller ones
digestive enzyme enzymes that break down polymers into monomers
digestive tract the series of organs in the digestive system through which food passes
duodenum first part of the small intestine
emulsification the breakdown of fat molecules using bile
epiglottis a flap of cartilage used to cover the wind pipe when swallowing
esophagus connects the throat to the stomach
gall bladder secrets bile; located beneath the liver
gastric juice a thin, clear and colourless acidic fluid used in promoting digestion
hydrochloric acid (HCL) secreted into the stomach to create an acidic environment
insulin a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels
intestinal juice secreted into the small intestine which includes enzymes such as trypsin and lipase
lacteals in the villa which absorbs the digested fat
large intestine (colon) used to reabsorb water and to compact undigested food
lipase an enzyme that is used to break down fats in the small intestine, secreted by the pancreas
liver an organ that helps digestion by removing waste products
maltase an enzyme that breaks down maltose
microvillus a number of small finger like projections to increase surface area on the villus
nuclease an enzyme that breaks down nucleic acids
pancreas a large organ that secretes many of digestive enzymes into the duodenum
pancreatic amylase an enzyme that is used to break down starch
pancreatic juice a clear alkaline digestive fluid
pepsin an enzyme used to break down proteins into polypeptides
pepsinogen inactive form of pepsin; converted using an acid
peptidase an enzyme that breaks down peptides into amino acids
peristalsis an involuntary constriction and relaxation of muscles which helps move the food contents forward
pH the logarithmic function that measure the amount of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
pharynx the cavity behind the nose and mouth connecting them to the esophagous
physical digestion the breakdown of food with chemical reactions
protease an enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides
pyloric sphincter a ring of muscle at the bottom of the stomach that controls the movement of chyme into the small intestine
rectum the final section of the large intestine connected to the anus
salivary amylase an enzyme in the mouth the digests starch
salivary gland the glands that secrete saliva into your mouth
salivary juice/saliva contains water, mucous and salivary enzymes
small intestine runs between the stomach and the large intestine, most digestion occur here
sodium bicarbonate used to neutralize the action of the digestive juices
stomach an organ that stores and mixes food
swallowing to pass something down the throat
trypsin an enzyme that breaks down proteins
villus a number of small fingerlike projections that increase the surface area
Created by: hhenderson