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Test 2


prokaryotic cells usually smaller, doesn't contain a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles (ex.bacteria and archaea)
eukaryotic cells membrane enclosed organelles, largest organelle is usually the nucleus (ex.plants,animals, fungi)
Plasma Membrane -double layer of phospholipids and proteins -has carrier proteins -transports in one direction and receptors recognize certain chemicals
Cell Walls -found in plants,fungi, and many protists -surrounds plasma membrane *plants cell wall is mostly cellulose *fungi cell wall contains chitin
Cytoplasm -viscous fluid containing organelles - components: *interconnected filament and fibers(cytoskeleton) *fluid-cytosol *organelles(not nucleus)
Cytoskeleton -fibers and filaments - 3 fiber types: *microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments - 3 functions: *mechanical support, anchor organelles, & help move substances
Cilia and Flagella -provide motility -cilia is short & is used to move substances outside human cells -flagella is whip-like extensions
Centrioles -pairs of microtubular structures -play a role in cell division
Nucleus -controls center of cell -has a double membrane -contains chromosomes and nucleolus
Nuclear Envelope -separates nucleus from the rest of the cell -double membrane -has pores
Nucleolus -most cells have 2 or more -direct synthesis of RNA -forms ribosomes
Endoplasmic Recticulum(ER) -helps moves substances within cells -network of interconnected membranes -2 types: rough and smooth
Rough ER -ribosomes are attached to surface -manufactured proteins -not all attach -may modify proteins form ribosomes
Smooth ER -not attached ribosomes -has enzymes that help build molecules -carbohydrates and lipids
Golgi Apparatus -involved in synthesis of plant cell wall -packaging and shipping station of cell (UPS)
Lysosomes -contains digestive enzynmes -functions: aid in cell renewal,breakdown old cell plants, and digestive invaders -suicide cell
Vacuoles -membrane bound storage sacs -more common in plants than animals -contains: water, food, wastes
Mitochondria -has its own DNA -double membrane -breaks down fuel molecules(celluar respiration) *glucose and fatty acids -release energy(ATP)
Chloroplast -derived from photosynthetic bacteria -solar energy capturing organelle -only in plants
Passive Transport -no energy required -move due to gradient -move to equalize gradient -2 types: diffusion and osmosis
diffusion molecules move to equalize concentration (ex. spraying perfume)
osmosis "special form" fluids flow from lower solute concentration
hypotonic -solutes in a cell is greater on the inside -outside solvent will flow into a cell
isotonic solute is equal in and out of the cell`
hypertonic -solute is greater on the outside of the cell -fluid will flow out of cell
Facilitated Diffusion -differentially permeable membrane -channels helps molecules or ions enter or leave the cell
Active Transport -requires energy - moves against the gradient
Endocytosis -particles, organisms, and large molecules move into the cell -2 types: bulk phase (nonspecific) receptor phase (specific)
phago pino cell eating cell drinking
Exocytosis materials leave the cell
Principles of Cell Theory -living things are made of cells -smallest living unit of structure and function -all cells arise from preexisting cells
Created by: Madison1998