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Geo Definitions

CGC1D Mr. Rajala study for exam

Geography - The study of the Earth - Means to write the earth
Population Density - a figure calculated by dividing the population by the area - cities tend to have a larger pop. rate than towns
Geo-technologies - Different types of technology that is used to find out more about the earth - has revolutionized the field of geography - include remote sensing, GPS, and GIS
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita - the value of all goods and services produced in a country in a year - allows a more direct comparison between countries
Map - a representation of the Earth's features drawn on a flat surface - there are many different types f maps including, topographic, thematic, general purpose, large-scale, small-scale, and digital maps - There are also six essential features to a map
The Six Essential Features of A Map Title, Scale, Legend, DOP (Date of publication), Border, and Direction
Scale - a measurement on a map that represents a distance on the Earth's surface - There are different types of scale, including direct statement scale, representative fraction, and line scales
Small-Scale Map - a map that shows a small amount of detail for a large area - world maps, maps of countries, etc.
Large-Scale Map - a map that shows a large amount of detail for a small area - town maps, residential planning, military operations, etc.
General Purpose Map - a map that contains many different types of information - can contain: bodies of water, parks, roads, elevations, political boundaries, latitude and longitude, railway lines, towns and cities, and national and provincial parks. - wall maps, atlas maps
Thematic Maps - a map containing information of only one topic/ theme (tend to be easy to understand) - climate, soil type, vegetation, etc.
Topographic Maps - a large scale map showing both natural and human made features - uses symbols to show a variety of different features - can use a map grid/ system and/or contour lines
Latitude - the distance, in degrees, north or south of the equator - the equator is 0* and every other line is North or South of there - the lines are approx. 111 km apart
Longitude - The distance, measured in degrees, east or west of the Prime Meridian - The Prime Meridian is 0* and the anti- Meridian is 180*
Compass Point - a direction on a compass, such as North or South N,S,E, and W are cardinal points, then it goes to the ordinal points (NE, SE) and then to the NNE and ESE, etc
Compass Rose - a diagram showing directions and bearings used to see directions on a map - shows compass points and compass bearings
Compass Bearing - degrees on a compass rose -measured from North 0* to 360* (North again) - more accurate then Compass points
Alphanumeric Grid - a grid that uses letters and numbers to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map - basically Battleship - often used on road maps
Map/ Military Grid - a series of lines on a map that can be used to locate any place on the map (topographic) - the easting line is on the bottom and the northing line is on the top - the easting numbers are first, then the northing numbers
Easting - the first three figures in a map reference giving the east/west location - along the bottom of the map (increase from east to west)
Northing - the last three figures in a map reference giving the north/south location - Along the side of the map grid (increase from south to north)
Prime Meridian - a meridian of longitude on maps that runs from the north pole to the south pole - located at 0* - runs through Greenwich, England
Equator - a line of latitude that is located at the roundest part of the earth (0*) - the closer one is to the equator the warmer it is
Tropic of Cancer - a parallel of latitude at 23.5*N - the summer solstice occurs when the sun is directly over the tropic at ~ June 21
Tropic of Capricorn - a parallel of latitude at 23.5*S - the winter solstice occurs when the sun is directly over the tropic at ~ December 21
Arctic Circle - a parallel of latitude located at 66.5*N - marks the southern-most point of a polar day (a period of 24 hours of sunlight) < summer solstice
Antarctic Circle - a parallel of latitude located at 66.5*S - marks the northernmost point of a polar day (a period of 24 hours of sunlight) < winter solstice
Direct Statement Scale - words are used to explain the relationship between distance on a map and distance in the real world - ex. 1 cm = 10 km
Line Scale - a line divided into units of distance that represent the actual units on the ground - ex. 0|------|-------|10 km
Representative Fraction Scale - a scale on a map given as a ratio to distance on the map to distance on the ground - ex. 1:1,000,000
Continental Drift - a theory proposed by Alfred Wegener stating that 300 mill. years ago, the continents were all joined together as Pangaea and about 200 mill. years ago it broke apart
State the four reasons that Alfred Wegener used to support his theory of Continental Drift 1) Similar fossils have been found in SA and Africa 2) SA and Africa look like they once fit together 3) The Appalachian and Caledonia mountain ranges are similar in age and pattern 4) Glaciation in SA an Africa where there shouldn't be
Pangaea - means all-land - the supercontinent that existed from 300 mill. to 200 mill. years ago
Plate Tectonics - a theory by J. Tuzo Wilson that states that Earth's outer shell is made up of different plates - these plates are responsible for earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.
Convection Currents - the circular movement of magma in the crust that causes the plates to move - magma is heated and rises to the crust, as it rises it cools and sinks back down to the core.
Erosion - the wearing away of the Earth's surface followed by the movement to another location - caused by moving water, ice wind, and other natural forces
Sediments - eroded material deposited by wind, water, or ice - eventually become sedimentary rock
Glaciation - the state of being covered in glaciers or massive ice sheets (from 1 mill. to 12,000 yrs ago) - the glaciers were constantly moving and they shaped the land in many different ways
Subduction - the process by which collision of the earth's crustal plats result in one being drawn down be the other - localized along the juncture (Subduction zone) - ex. when an oceanic plate meets a continental one
Continental/ Oceanic Plates - the earth's crust is made up of many different plates - There are 8 continental plates that are not submerged in water (Earth's major) - There are 6 oceanic plates
Ice Age - An ice age is a period of long term reduction in the temperature - results in the expansion of polar ice
Canadian Shield - a large area of igneous and metamorphic rock that makes up the core of Canada - Made in the Precambrian era - Has lots of metallic minerals
Weather - a combination of temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and winds that we experience daily
Climate - the weather conditions of a place averaged over a period of time - There six factors that effect weather and climate (LOWER Near Water)
Latitude (factor) - if it's closer to the equator its warmer
Ocean Currents (factor) - when air passes over water it gets warmer
Wind and wind Direction/ Air Mass (factor) - an air mass has the same conditions of the region that it was formed in - air masses from the ocean have more moisture - air masses formed over land have less moisture
Elevation (factor) The higher up you are the colder it gets because the air isn't as condense
Relief Precipitation (factor) - When an air mass meets a mountain barrier, then it loses precipitation to go above it (as rain or snow on the windward side) - on the leeward side there isn't a lot of rain or snow so it has a dryer climate and/ or a rain shadow
Near Water (factor) - Areas located closer to large bodies of water have a maritime climate and areas that are located further away have continental climates
Air Mass - a large body of air that has the same conditions of the area where it was formed - the same temperature and precipitation throughout
Prevailing Winds - winds that are formed from high and low pressure belts that have created well established patterns - flow from west to east or from high to low pressure - they move air masses that effect our weather
Polar Front - the boundary between the cold polar air and the warm tropical air - above the polar front is the jet stream
Jet Stream - a west to east movement of air in the mid-latitude flowing at up to speeds of 400 km/h at an altitude of between 8000 and 15000 m. - it controls the location of the polar front
Condensation - a process where water vapor is cooled and change from a gas to a liquid - this process helps makes water droplets in clouds
Relief Precipitation - precipitation crated when an air mass rises to cross a mountain barrier an loses some precipitation to get over - Causes a rain shadow on the leeward side of the mountain
Convectional Precipitation - precipitation that occurs in the summertime - the hot ground heats the air above it and causes it to rise - as it rises it cools and causes precipitation
Maritime Climate - a climate that occurs in an area that is close to a large body of water - smaller temp range (20*-30*) - lots of precipitation (1000-2500mm) - Season o max precip. - winter
Continental Climate - a climate type that occurs in an area that is far from a large body of water - Large temp range (25*-50*) - low total annual precip (200-1000mm) - Season of max precip - summer
Moderating Effect -an effect that lots of water has on a nearby climate. -winters are warmer, summers are cooler -small annual temp range
Soil - a surface of Earth composed of BAMM
Humus - a dark upper layer of soil made up of partially decayed plant material - Helps make soil more fertile
Soil Profile - different layers in the soil and the rock layer below the soil - Each layer has different characteristics
Calcification - a process where water carries minerals upward through the soil(dry). - The water evaporates and leaves the minerals behind(topsoil is calcified)
Leaching - a process where minerals are removed from the soil by water moving downward (wet climates)
Tundra - the northernmost vegetation region in Canada - Too cold for trees. Its above the tree line - There are lots of grasses, bushes, shrubs, etc.
Transition Zone - an area where the characteristics of one vegetation region gradually change to those of another
Permafrost - permanently frozen ground that doesn't thaw in the summer
Boreal and Taiga Forest - a coniferous forest that stretches from east to west across Canada - South of the Tundra, North of the Grasslands + Mixed Forests
Coniferous Trees - trees with cones and needle like leaves - evergreens - found in the boreal and Taiga forest and in the Mixed Forest
Deciduous Trees - trees with leaves - shed their leaves in the fall - found in the mixed forest
Ecozone - a distinct ecological region determined on the basis of physical, biological, and human factors
Immigrate - when someone comes into a new country - there are 3 types of immigrants: Ecological, Family, and Refugee
Emigrate - when someone leaves their country for another
Demography - the study of population numbers, distribution, trends, and issues
Birth/Death Rate - The number of births/deaths per 1000 people
Natural Increase Rate - a rate that shows the natural increase in a population - Birth Rate - Death Rate
Immigration/ Emigration Rate - the number of new immigrants/ emigrants per 1000 people
Net Migration Rate - a rate that shows the difference of new immigrants and emigrants to a country - Immigration Rate - Emigration Rate
Population Growth Rate - a rate that shows how much a population has grown overall - Natural Increase + Net Migration
Doubling Time - how long it would take for a countries population to double at it's current population growth rate
The Rule of 70 - when a countries population growth rate is divided by 70, it shows how long the countries doubling time is - shows an estimate (no hard math)
Dependency Load - part of a countries population that is below the age of 14 and above the age of 65 - They aren't in the workforce
Population Pyramid - a graph that shows the percent of the population in an age group and sex
Aboriginal Peoples - descendants of Canada's original inhabitants - three groups: Indians (status and non-status), Metis, and Innuit
Treaties - agreements made between the First Nations people and the Europeans (now Canadian government) - Signed to accomplish goals (and unfair)
Economic Base - economic activities that allow a community to exist - The First Nations people had to retain access to enough and to secure a stable economic base
First Nations - a group of Aboriginal people who share the same culture and heritage
Reserve - a small area given to the First Nations people by the Canadian government so they could fish and hunt
Royal Proclamation of 1763 - a degree that stated that the land ownerships rights of the Aboriginals was to be respected - if First Nation land was to be sold, then it would receive equal pay
Indian Act, 1876 - a treaty put in place with the Aboriginal Groups of the west - the aboriginals gave up land in exchange for cash and goods and the ability to fish and hunt as they did before
Band - an aboriginal group recognized by the Canadian government - the government gives land (reserves) and $ to the bands to use - Over 600 bands in Canada
Self-Government -a principle that states that each distinct group of people has the right to control their own affairs - often applied to the First Nations people
Assimilate - to lose your culture and adopt the culture of the large group - ex. The Residential Schools
Comprehensive Claims - a claim available to the FN people who haven't signed a treaty before - deals with lots of issues: land, self-G, ownership, resources, hunting, financial compensation
Comprehensive Treaty - a treaty for FN people that haven't signed a treaty before - ex. Nunavut
Specific Claim - claims made by the FN's if they believe that their original treaties was unfair
Multicultural - characteristics of a society that is made up of many different cultures
Push/ Pull Factors - factors that cause someone to leave/ come to a country Push: war, poor living conditions, terrorism Pull: peace, jobs, freedom
Intervening Obstacles - events or factors that prevent someone from leaving a country - can be physical
Economic Immigrant - immigrants that are skilled workers and business immigrants - acceptance is based on a point system
Family Immigrant - brought in to reunite with family - must be sponsored by someone in Canada
Refugee - someone who fears harsh treatment (or death) in their country - people apply for status while living in Canada or abroad
Interprovincial Migration - the relocation of individuals from one province to another
Rural - outside of a towns and cities - low pop. density and a dispersed pattern
Population Distribution - patterns showing where people live in an area
Population Density - a figure calculated by dividing the population of a region by the region's area
Rural Settlement - occurs outside of cities -it is characterized by a low pop. density and a dispersed pattern - Three factors affect it: Types of Resources in the area, Transportation methods available, and Government policy
Long-Lot System - river frontage for transportation - farmers would divide lots for children - soon roads were added and second row of lots
Township System (Concession) - base line on a body of water - concessions (thin lines) were drawn north of the baseline - side roads defined a grid -each grid space was separated into lots
Section System - the US/Canada border acted as a baseline - land was divided into 9.6km x 9.6km -each section was divided into quarters (read spot from smallest area to biggest)
Urban - towns and cities of 1000 people or more - high pop. density and a clustered settlement pattern
Hinterland -part of Christaller's theory - the area around a community that trades with it
Basic Industry - an industry that sells it's products outside the community, bringing money into the community - also establishes an economic base
Non-Basic Industry -an industry that sells its products inside the community - most- jobs in a community are non-basic - money is going out of a community
Multiplier Effect - the impact of a basic industry on employment in a community - for every basic job there are approx. 3 non-basic jobs
Central Place - a village, town, or city that exists primarily to provide goods and services for a surrounding hinterland
Threshold Population - the minimum of customers needed to make a business profitable or to allow services to be offered - high vs. middle vs. low order goods and services
Urban Growth - the actual number of people by which a city or town's population grows
Urbanization -the movement of people from rural to urban areas - the trend of the last century Reasons: jobs, mechanization of farms, education
Residential Urban Land Use - places where people live - 40% of urban land use Residential density is units per hectare
Transportation: Urban Land Use - 1/3 of developed land in an urban area - made up of three parts: vehicles, travel paths, and terminal facilities
Urban Sprawl -low density development surrounding a city - rapid and widespread urbanization
Site - refers to the characteristics of the land on which a city is built
High Order Goods and Services - high priced products that are purchased infrequently - require a large threshold pop - ex. specialty doctors/ hospitals
Middle Order Goods and Services - a product or service that people buy from time to time - clothing, shoes, office supplies - larger threshold pop then low order goods and services
Low Order Goods And Services - a product that is purchased frequently - requires a small threshold pop.
Land Use - how urban, suburban, or rural land is and can be used - parks, housing, industries, etc.
Residential Density - a measure of the number of housing units per hectare
Zoning - laws usually passed by city government, controlling the kind and amount of development in an area
Suburban - referring to low-density housing areas, commercial areas, etc. - usually found on the outskirts of a city between rural and urban
Primary Industry - an industry that deals with the production or primary products such as minerals or an agricultural product (harvested, mined, etc.)
Secondary Industry - an industry dealing with the manufacturing or construction - resolute mill
Tertiary Industry - an industry that provides services instead of goods - restaurants, dentists, schools, etc.
Quaternary Industry highly specialized ( and expensive) knowledge based technological and support services - writing code, research, development, etc.
Global Village - an Idea that the world is becoming like one large village because of improvements in communication
Developing Nations - a country with a poorly developed economy - citizens have low incomes, shortages of food, poor housing, and they cannot afford luxuries - often referred to as third world countries
Newly Industrialized Nations - countries in the transition stage between being a developing to a developed country - have rapidly growing economies
Developed Countries - a country with a highly developed economy - the citizens have high incomes, abundant food, good housing, and can afford many luxuries - often called first world countries
Globalization - the development of an increasingly integrated world which free movement of goods, services, and people make natural borders less important
Maquilas - short for Maquiladora - a word for the assemble of imported component parts for re-export - in many parts of Mexico and Central America
Sweatshops - a workplace where workers are subject to extreme exploitation - absence of a living wage or benefits, poor working conditions, and bitrary discipline
Created by: Katelyn_McKenna



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