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3D Printing terms

Special topic 2016

QuestionAnswer
Belt It transfers movement from the motors to other parts of a machine along with pulleys. It is a toothed gear belt used to move the various components. It will not slip and ensures accurate calibration of the machine.
Stepper motor It is controlled by computer software. It can be controlled to within a percentage or increment of a rotation of the spindle. It moves nozzles and the bed / platform on the X, Y and Z axis like on a CNC Lathe
BOM Bill of Materials
CAD Computer aided design eg Solid works
CAM Computer aided machining, Using software on a computer to control a 3D printer or a CNC Lathe
Carriage The moving middle assembly on the x-axis that hold the extruder
Catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction. It aids the curing process
Curing The chemical process of causing the poymer to set or turn from a pasty state to a solid
Extrude Heating of a thermoplastic to a liquid state and pushing it through a small nozzle to form profile of a continuous cross sectional area.
Filament Plastic material fed through the extruder from a spool.
Heated Belt A heated surface whichprevents the base of an extruded part from cooling too quickly
Hot End Heated nozzle portion of the extruder mechanism, which gets hot enough to melt plastic
Raft Disposable material that the part is built on top of to prevent warping
Prototype An original manufactured version of a design from which other designs are developed and tested
How do prototypes vary from the final design? Reduce costs by simulating the final materials being used and compromising on the manufacturing technique.
Rapid Prototyping A process of quickly producing models of a component at a much faster rate than traditional machining
Charles Hull In 1986 he invented a Stereolithography. A machine which could produce a 3D model of an object by building it up in layers.
PhotoPolymer A material which changes from liquid to plastic-like solid when light shines on it
Subtractive Process Material is removed to create the component. This is very wasteful of material e.g Drilling or Lathe
Additive Process Makes parts by adding material together. e.g 3D prototyping This is much more economical on material.
Stereolithography (SLA) A vat of photo-polymer resin contains a vertically-moving platform. A UV Laser light cures layers of the polymer to form the prototype. The uncured polymer is removed and the prototype is 'post cured'
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) A laser sinter's layers of polymer powder to build a prototype.
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) A polymer is extruded through a hot nozzle. A stepper motor moves the nozzle to deposit the polymer and builds the prototype in layers. The nozzle moves on the X/Y axis. The build platform moves on the Z axis.
Name the first rapid prototyping process Stereolithography (SLA) invented by Charles Hull
Name the key components which should be included in a diagram which explains SLA process Laser, lense, steerable mirror, photo-polymer, platform, elevator , model
Sintering Sintering means compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat and/or pressure without melting it.
Name the key components which should be included in a diagram which explains SLS process Laser, scanner, roller, platform piston, powder delivery piston, stairsteps
Name the key components which should be included in a diagram which explains FDM modelling process Filament, spool, extruder, pinch system, heater block, stepper motor, print head
Glass Transition Temperature Temperature which a polymer turns from a hard rigid material to a soft rubbery material.
Dual Extruder Allows two different polymers to be extruded at the same time to improve the mechanical properties of the prototype or build supports for the prototype.
Stair steps Steps are visible on the outside of the prototype due to the layers produced. These can be removed by sanding or dissolving the surface material with and appropriate substance.
Summarise the stages for producing a 3D printed model 1) Cad drawing is created 2) The drawing is 'sliced' into layers 3) The file is converted to STL format for the printer. 4) The component is printed using the same layers on the 3d printer.
Bioprinting This is a process which is being researched to enable the production of body organs form living tissue by a 3D printing technique.
Advantages of 3D Printing / Rapid prototyping Less waste - environmentally friendly Reduced costs Components can be made to order - Less storage requirements Quick to manufacture prototypes.
Disadvantages off Rapid prototyping Limited size on component that can be made which is dependent on the machine size. Not suitable for mass production Reduces manufacturing jobs. Can easily produce dangerous items such as knives and guns.
Created by: Engineeringmcs