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DNA & Punnett Square

DNA--> Deoxy ribonucleic Acid The carrier of genetically coded information found in the nucleus of nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes.
Punnett Square The diagram used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
Genotype The actual lettered code assigned to DNA allele pairs passed from mother and father to offspring during reproduction.
Phenotype The physical characteristics that organisms receive because of the gene type inherited from the parents.
Genetics the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms
Heredity The passing of characteristics from parents to children
Off Spring A child or animal in relation to its parent or parents.
Allele A gene pair (1 from mom and 1 from dad) that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristic.
Homozygous Dominant A particular gene that has identical CAPITAL letter alleles on both homologous chromosomes. This gene’s traits will take over when placed in an allele pair HH
Homozygous Recessive A particular gene that has identical lower case letters on both homologous chromosomes.--> hh (This gene’s traits will be masked if it were to be linked to a capital letter)
Heterozygous A particular gene that has received both a recessive and dominant trait Hh
Genetic Cross The deliberate breeding of two different individuals that result in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. a. Example Mendel’s long and short pea plant experiment
Monohybrid cross Mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic trait of interest. Rita and Fred Fish are concerned about the size of their potential children.
Gregor Mendel An Austrian monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments on the tall and short pea plants in his garden.
Reginald Punnett The British geneticist responsible for creating the 4 square chart that determines the future genotypes of offspring
Created by: hdambrosio