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GI SYSTEM

Med Surg II

QuestionAnswer
an/o anus
bar/o weight
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
chol/e bile, gall
cholangi/o bile duct
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o colon
dent/o tooth
enter/o small intestine
gastr/o stomach
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
hepta/o liver
labi/o lip
lapar/o abdomen
lingu/o tongue
lith/o stone
or/o mouth
proct/o anus and rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
-emesis vomit
-lithiasis condition of stones
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
-prandial pertaining to a meal
-tripsy surgical crushing
Alimentary Canal Order oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon
Accessory organs liver, pancreas, gallbladder, salivary glands
Pharynx Oropharynx and laryngopharynx
Peristalsis wavelike muscular contraction that pushes food through GI tract
Hydrochloric Acid Secreted by glands in the mucous membrane lining of stomach
Chyme Formed when HCl mixes with food
Sphincters Controls entry into and exit from stomach
Cardiac Sphincter between the esophagus and fundus
Lower esophageal sphincter Keeps food from flowing backward into esophagus
Pyloric sphincter Regulates passage of food into the small intestine
Small intestine Major site of digestion and absorption of nutrients
Small Intestine Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Ileocecal Valve Connects the ileum to the colon via sphincter
Veriform Appendix outgrowth at the end of the cecum
Amylase Enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of carbs
Salivary Glands Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
Liver processes nutrients, detoxifies harmful substances, and produces bile
Bile Helps digest fats and lipids
Emulsification the process of breaking up large fat globules and making them easier to digest in water
Gallbladder Stores bile
Common Bile Duct carries bile to the duodenum where it emulsifies fat in chyme
Pancreas Has buffers that neutralize acidic chyme and has enzymes that digest carbs, fats, and proteins. Produces insulin and glucagon.
Ascites Collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Cachexia Loss of weight and generalized wasting that occurs during a chronic disease
Hematochezia Passing bright red blood in stool
Melena Passage of dark tarry stool
Pyrosis Pain and burning sensation usually c/b stomach acid splashing up into esophagus (heartburn)
Esophageal Varices Enlarged and swollen varicose veins in lower esophagus; if rupture serious hemorrhage results; often r/t liver dx
Gastroesophageal Reflux Dx (GERD) Acid from the stomach flows backward into the esophagus causing inflammation and pain
Histal Hernia Protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thoracic cavity; common GERD symptom
Peptic Ulcer Dx Ulcer in lower esophagus and/or duodenum; damage to stomach lining r/t h. pylori infection
Anal fistula Abnormal tubelike passage from anal opening directly into rectum
Crohn's Dx Form of chronic IBD, affecting ileum or colon; autoimmune condition that affects layers of bowel wall and results in scarring & thickening of gut wall
Diverticulitis Inflammation of outpouching of gut, especially in gut; often happens when food becomes trapped within pouch known as diverticulum
Dysentery R/t diarrhea with mucous and blood, severe ab pain, fever, and dehydration. c/b ingesting contaminated food/water
Inguinal hernia Protrusion of small intestine loop into groin region through weakened spot in ab muscle wall
Intusseusception Result of intestine telescoping into another section of intestine below it; more common in children
Volvulus Condition in which bowel twists upon itself and causes obstruction. Pain and requires immediate surgery
Lavage Using NG tube to wash out stomach
Anorexiant Treats obesity by suppressing appetite
Anorexiant drugs phendimetrazine, Adipost/Obezine; phentermine, Zantryl, Adipex
Antacids calcium carbonate, Tums; aluminum hydroxide & magnesium hydroxide Maalox/Mylanta
Antidiarrheal loperamide, Imodium; diphenoxylate, Lomotil; kaolin/pectin; Kaopectate
Antiemetic prochlorperazine, Compazine; promethazine, Phenergan
Emetic Ipecac syrup
H2 receptor Antagonist Used to tx peptic ulcers and GERD. Increases production of stomach acid
H2 receptor antagonist drugs ranitidine, Zantac; cimetidine, Tagamet; famotidine, Pepcid
Laxative senosides, Senokot; psyllium, Metamucil
Proton Pump Inhibitors Used to tx peptic ulcers and GERD. Blocks ability of stomach to secrete acid
Proton Pump inhibitor drugs esomeprazole, Nexium; omeprazole, Prilosec
TPN Total Parenteral Nutrition
Created by: TedMed