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Biology CH 14

TermDefinition
DNA fingerprinting a test to identify and evaluate the genetic information-called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-in a person's cells.
true-breeding when self-fertilized, only produces offspring with the same traits. The alleles for these type of plants are homozygous.
trait a genetically determined characteristic.
hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse).
gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
segregation the separation of pairs of alleles at meiosis and their independent transmission via separate gametes.
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
codominance a relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent. If the alleles are different, the dominant allele will be expressed, while the effect of the other allele recessive, is masked.
multiple alleles an allele of a genetic locus having more than two allelic forms within a population.
non disjunction the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division, usually resulting in an abnormal distribution of chromosomes in the daughter nuclei.
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
sex-linked gene that is carried only by the male or female parent. Note : In humans, the gene for colorblindness is carried by the X-chromosome.
padigree the record of descent of an animal, showing it to be purebred.
genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Created by: Luke Kangas