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Infection, FUND

246 Quiz 1

Body’s cellular response to injury or infection, Protective vascular activity Inflammation
formation of fibrinogen and fibrin strands across the affected area. The scar is never as strong as the original tissue. resolution of inflammation
occurs when a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection Colonization
disease is the infectious process transmitted from one person to another Communicable
Chain of Infection (6 steps) Infectious agent or pathogen, Reservoir or source for pathogen growth, Portal of exit, Mode of transmission, Portal of entry, Susceptible host
Sufficient number, Sufficiently virulent, Able to enter and survive in host, Host must be susceptible Infectious Agents
agents of infection bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
Hepatitis A, B, C. HIV, HPV viruses
E. Coli, Staph aureus, Strepto, Mycobacterium bacteria
Candida fungi
Falliparum (malaria) protozoa
Food, Oxygen (aerobic vs anaerobic), Water, Temperature, pH, Light or dark, Open skin or mucous membranes, Respiratory tract, Urinary tract, Gastrointestinal tract, Reproductive tract, Blood Reservoir essentials
Skin and mucous membranes, Respiratory tract, Urinary tract, Gastrointestinal tract, Reproductive Tract, Blood Portals of Entry (SKIN, TRACTS, BLOOD)
Modes of Transmissions are contact, vehicles, vector
direct contact vs indirect contact Direct—person-person/person-source vs. Indirect—person-contaminated object
droplet nuclei or evaporated droplets suspended in air during coughing/sneezing airborne
large particles travel up to 3 ft propelled by coughing/sneezing/talking droplet
contaminated objects, blood, water, food, stethoscopes, hands vehicles
Mosquitoes, Lice, Fleas, Ticks vector
Elderly and very young have immune systems that are less robust, Nutritional status impacts level of resistance, Chronic diseases affect resistance, Smoking, Those who have used antibiotics inappropriately in all healthcare settings Susceptible Hosts
infectious process (4 stages) Incubation period, Prodromal stage, Illness stage, Convalescence
interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptom Incubation period
Interval from onset of nonspecific Signs &Symptoms to more specific symptoms Prodromal stage
Interval when manifest signs and symptoms specific to type of infection Illness stage
Interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear Convalescence
local infections wound infection
localized infection symptoms pain, tenderness, and heat, redness, loss of function of the area.
systemic infections present in the bloodstream, lymphatics, (affects the entire body)
Septicemia most common systemic infection that results in death
Fever (pyrogen release), elevated white blood cell count, tachycardia, weakness/malaise, cough or difficulty urinating, lymphadenopathy, anorexia with possible nausea and vomiting, possible confusion or mental status changes systemic infections symptoms
Normal flora, Body defense mechanisms, Inflammation, Vascular and cellular responses, Inflammatory exudate, Tissue repair Defenses Against Infection
Health Care–Associated Infection (Nosocomial) Hospital, Community, Iatrogenic, Exogenous,
acquired infections Hospital, Community
from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. Iatrogenic infection
is present outside the client. Exogenous infection
normal flora becomes altered. Endogenous infection
Created by: Khuller