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8 Science Midterm Re

The one variable that is controlled or changed by the experimenter EX: Test the effect of salt on temperature of water freezing Independent Variable: Salt that is added to a bottle of water
The variable that is affected by the independent variable EX: Test the effect of salt on temperature of water freezing Dependent Variable: the temperature at which the salt water freezes
Normal conditions used to compare against the variable conditions in an experiment (no variables) EX: Test the effect of salt on temperature of water freezing Control: Another bottle of water with no salt in it
Conditions that stay the same every time an experiment is conducted EX: Test the effect of salt on temperature of water freezing Constants: The size and kind of water bottles must be the same
An educated guess EX: Test the effect of salt on temperature of water freezing Hypothesis: If salt is added to water, then the salt will lower the freezing temperature of the water (Based on observations of salt melting ice on sidewalks in winter)
Regulates the amount of light into the body tube of a microscope Diaphragm
Moves the body tube of a microscope up and down to focus an image Coarse Adjustment Knob
Moves the body tube of a microscope SLIGHTLY to sharpen an image Fine Adjustment knob
The specimen that is being viewed through a microscope Field of view
To observe a cell under high power, how would you move the slide? Why? Center it first, then move it to the left. High power MAGNIFIES the image, so you see less area but more detail.
What are the three powers of magnification for a microscope that has a 10X eyepiece, and 10X, 20X, and 40X objective lenses? 100x, 200x, and 400x
Name three safety measures that should be used when heating a test tube filled with an uknown substance goggles, lab coat, gloves
What is the formula for density? D = M/V
If an object is more dense than the liquid it is sitting in, then the object will float or sink? sink
INGESTION (taking in food & nutrients) + DIGESTION (breaking food down into a useable form for cells) Nutrition
Elimination of cellular wastes such as water, CO2, urea Excretion
Moving materials in and out, or through, an organism (EX. in and out of cells, through the blood stream, etc.) Transport
The sexual or asexual production of offspring; natural process for generating new individuals Reproduction
Releasing energy in food by breaking its chemical bonds Respiration
The ability to respond appropriately to changes in the environment Regulation
An increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures Growth
Combining small molecules to make bigger ones Synthesis
The regulation of an organism's internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for life, a.k.a. Keeping everything in BALANCE. Homeostasis
The sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism Metabolism
When an organism takes in food from its environment Heterotrophic nutrition
When an organism makes its own food, such as photosynthesis Autotrophic nutrition
Name the classification levels of living things from broadest to most specific Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Species
What are three characteristics used for classification? 1. Physical characteristics, 2.Genetic similarities, 3. Evolutionary history
The classification or scientific name of an organism includes its ______ and ________ . Genus and species
What are the six structures of living things? Organelles - Cells-Tissues - Organs - Organ systems - organism
Name the three parts of Cell Theory 1. All cells come from other cells, 2. All cells perform life functions, 3. All living things are made up of cells
Name three differences between a plant and animal cell 1.Plant cell is rectangular, animal is circular 2.Only plant cells have cell walls 3.Only plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis
What is the function of the MITOCHONDRIA in cells? Energy (ATP) is released from food during cellular respiration in the mitochondria.
What is the function of the NUCLEUS in cells? Controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA
What is the function of the RIBOSOME in cells? Where small particles of RNA and protein are assembled to make proteins
What is the function of the CHLOROPLAST in plant cells? Uses sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules in a process called photosynthesis
What is the function of the CELL MEMBRANE in cells? A thin, flexible membrane around the cell that selectively controls what materials can move into or go out of the cell
What types of organisms carry out the process of Cell Respiration? ALL: Plants and animals
WHEN do organisms carry out Cell Respiration? All the time, 24/7
What types of organisms carry out the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS? Just plants (autotrophs)
WHEN do plants carry out photosynthesis When there is sunlight
What is the word for movement of molecules into and out of cells? Transport
Which cell structure or organelle allows molecules to move in and out of the cell? Cell membrane
Describe ACTIVE TRANSPORT of molecules When LARGE molecules use ATP to move from areas of LOW concentration to HIGH concentration, such as diffusion
Describe PASSIVE TRANSPORT of molecues When small molecules move from areas of high to low concentration, such as osmosis. They don't need ATP
What type of cells undergo MITOSIS? ALL tissue cells of the body, for growth and repair
What type of cells undergo MEIOSIS? Sex cells to produce GAMETS
How many daughter cells are created in MITOSIS? 2
How many daughter cells are created in MEIOSIS? 4
Compare parent cells to daughter cells in MITOSIS. SAME, 46. Each parent has 46 chromosomes which they replicate and give to the daughter cells so they also have 46.
Compare parent cells to daughter cells in MEIOSIS. HALF, 23. The parent cell has 46 chromosomes, but they only give half (23) to their gamets (daughter/sex cells)
What are the building blocks of DNA? NUCLEOTIDE.
What are the three parts of a NUCLEOTIDE/building block of DNA? BASE (ATCG) + SUGAR + PHOSPHATE GROUP
What are the base pairing rules of DNA? A-T and C-G
What are the 4 bases that are part of a nucleotide/building block of DNA? ATCG = Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
What is the structure of DNA? A double helix
What process must always take place before any type of cell division can occur? Cell replication
Name 4 functions of the skeletal system. 1. Gives our bodies their shape, 2. Protects our vital organs, 3. PRODUCES BLOOD CELLS, 4. Allows movement
What are the three parts of bone? 1.Compact bone, 2.Spongy bone, 3.Bone marrow
What part of bone is hard, white living cells around the outside made of calcium and phosphorus? Compact bone
What part of bone is found at the ends of bones, and is hard but filled with spaces to make them lighter? Spongy bone
What part of bone is soft yellow tissue in the center that produces red blood cells and contains fat? Bone marrow
What is tough but flexible tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet at the joints? Cartilage
What is strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bones? Tendon
What is strong connective tissue that attaches bone to bone? Ligament
Which TWO body systems work together to maintain homeostasis? Nervous system and endocrine system
What is an automatic response that occurs very rapidly without your conscious control? a Reflex
Your eye is dry and your eyelid blinks to give the eye some moisture. Reflex or voluntary response to a stimuli? Reflex - you didn't think about it, your eyelid automatically blinked
You see Lebron James wants to pass the basketball to you. You put out your hands to indicate you are ready to catch the ball. Reflex or response to a stimuli? Response to the stimuli of seeing Lebron getting ready to pass
A nerve cell is called a _________ Neuron
What is the function of a neuron? to Carry messages called "impulses" through the nervous system
What part of the nervous system interprets messages from the senses, and carries out learning, remembering and making judgements? Cerebrum
What part of the nervous system is responsible for coordination, balance, and coordinates the actions of your muscles? Cerebellum
What part of the nervous system controls the functioning of your internal organs? Medulla
What part of the nervous system controls most of the functions in the body? Brain
What part of the nervous system is made of a thick column of nerve tissue, and it links the brain to most of the nerves running through the body? Spinal cord
Created by: ltorff