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Ecosystems: Sci 10

What is a biome? The largest division of the biosphere.
What is the biosphere? The thin layer of land air and water on or near the earths surface where lving things exist.
Name earths 8 biomes. Tundra, Boreal Forest, Temperate deciduous forest, temperate rainforest, grassland, tropical rainforest, desert, permanent ice.
Name characteristics of the tundra. located in the upper northern hemisphere, very cold and dry, permanently frozen soil.
Name characteristics of the boreal forest. found in the far north, mainly coniferous trees.
Name characteristics of the temperate deciduous forest. located in temperate regions, trees lose leaves in winter, distinct 4 seasons.
Name characteristics of the temperate rainforest. found along coastlines, cool and very wet.
Name characteristics of the grassland. occurs in temperate and tropical regions, well adapted for drought.
Name characteristics of the tropical rainforest. found in a wide band around the equator, wet and warm year round.
Name characteristics of the desert. occur in temperate and tropical regions, days are hot and nights are cold.
Name characteristics of the permanent ice. Located at poles, below freezing all year round.
What factors influence temperature and precipitation. Latitude, elevation, wind, ocean currents.
Define structural adaptions. physical feature of an organism that allows it to better survive or reproduce in its environment
Define physiological adaptions. physical or chemical event inside an organism that allows it to better survive in its environment
Define behavioural adaptions. a unique behaviour shown by an organism that improves its survival or chance for mating
Define abiotic. Non living parts of an environment
Define biotic. Living parts of an environment
Define ecosystem. When abiotic components interact with biotic components.
Define species. A group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another.
Define population. All the members of a species within an ecosystem.
Define community. Populations of different species that interact in a specific ecosystem.
Name the symbiotic interactions. Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism.
Name the other biotic interactions. Competition, predation, mimicry.
Define commensalism. One organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped nor harmed.
Define mutualism. Both organisms benefit and somethings neither species can survive without each other.
Define parasitism. One species benefits and the other is harmed.
Define competition. Organisms require the same resource in the same location at the same time.
Define predation. One organism eats all or part of another organism.
Define mimicry. Prey animal mimics another species that is dangerous or tastes bad to avoid being eaten.
How do organisms interact with its ecosystem? The organism obtains food energy from the ecosystem, the organism contributes energy to the ecosystem.
Define the first trophic level. Primary producers, obtains energy from sun. (plants)
Define the second trophic level. Primary consumers, obtains energy from primary producers. (Herbivores)
Define the third trophic level. Secondary consumers, obtains energy from primary consumers. (Carnivores)
Define the fourth trophic level. Tertiary consumer, obtains energy from secondary consumers. (Top Carnivores)
Define food chain. Foods chains show the flow of energy from plant to animal and animal to animal.
Define food web. Interconnected food chains.
Define food pyramid. Shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to another.
Define decomposition. The breakdown of organic wastes and dead organisms.
Define detrivores. Small insects, bacteria, and fungi that obtain energy by eating dead plants and animals.
Define decomposers. bacteria and fungi changes wastes and dead organisms into nutrients.
Define bioaccumulation. The gradual build up of pollutants in living organisms.
Define biomagnification. The process in which pollutants become more concentrated at each trophic level.
How is accumulation measured? Parts per million (ppm)
Define natural selection. The best adapted members of an ecosystem survive to reproduce.
Define adaptive radiation. When one common ancestor evolves into a number of different species.
Explain primary succession. 1. Starts with rock 2. Pioneer species first organisms in area. 3. Lichens are involved in breaking down rock into soil 4. Soil allows plants to survive 5. Over time different plant species survive 6. Animal species begin to move in to the area
Explain secondary succession. 1. Starts with soil and some plants present 2. Result of a damaging event to the ecosystem (e.g. forest fire) 3. New seeds of plants will blow in and begin to rebuild the ecosystem
How does flooding affect ecosystems? Results in soil erosion, pollution, and disease when toxins or harmful bacteria from untreated sewage enter drinking water.
How does drought affect ecosystems? Plants and animals die due to lack of water.
How do insect infestations affect ecosystems? Often result in succession in forests because insects destroy older, weaker trees.
How do tsunamis affect ecosystems? Huge rapidly moving ocean waves destroy habitats ad salt water carried onto shore changes soil composition.
What is habitat loss and how does it affect ecosystems? habitats that are lost usually due to human activity
What is habitat fragmentation and how does it affect ecosystems? breaking up a habitat into smaller sections. This affects the ability of plants and animals to reproduce.
What is deforestation and how does it affect ecosystems? forests cleared or logged for human use
What is soil degradation and how does it affect ecosystems? deforestation leaves land bare so water and erosion can remove top soil
What is soil compaction and how does it affect ecosystems? Farm animals and machines cause soil to be squished together reducing the amount of air that is available to plant roots (plant roots need OXYGEN to survive!)
What is contamination and how does it affect ecosystems? By product of overexploitation.
What is overexploitation and how does it affect ecosystems? The overuse of a resource until it is depleted; this can lead to the extinction of a species.
Define native species. Plants or animals that naturally live in an area
Define introduced species. Harmless or beneficial to their new environment
Define invasive species. Takes over new habitats from native species OR takes over bodies of native species (as parasites)
How can Invasive species affect native species. Competition, Predation, Disease and parasites.
Created by: madsterb13