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SLS Bio12 DNA RY

SLS Bio12 DNA PoteinSynthesis RY

TermDefinition
complementary base pairing nucleotide bases fit together (H-bond) in a precise way: A-T, C-G, A-U
DNA helicase unwinds the DNA. Helicases are enzymes that bind and may even remodel nucleic acid or nucleic acid protein complexes.
DNA polymerase type of enzyme that is responsible for forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules
recombinant DNA inserting DNA of another species (e.g. humans) into DNA of another species (e.g. bacteria)
replication process by which DNA unwinds and makes exact copies of itself
semi-conservative replication means that one strand of the parent double helix is conserved in each new DNA molecule.
anti-codon complementary 3 base sequence on tRNA that binds to codon of mRNA during translation.
codon a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis
DNA sequence (genetic code) triplet code. 3 mRNA nucleotides code for one (and one only!) a.a.
elongation tRNA transfers an amino acid to the tRNA corresponding to the next codon
environmental mutagen a substance that may act as a mutagen in the environment of an organism
genetic disorder a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital)
initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5' end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF)
messenger RNA (mRNA) messenger RNA, carries complementary code from DNA to specify amino acids.
mutation a permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
termination Termination of the polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA). No tRNA can recognize or bind to this codon.
transcription process by which complementary mRNA is produces off of one side of a DNA molecule
transfer RNA transfer RNA. Carries a.a.'s to mRNA in translation. About 20 different ones
translation process of assembling proteins according to mRNA instructions. Occurs along surface of ribosomes
Created by: 100000197575888