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CARDIAC

PathoPharm II

QuestionAnswer
Afterload pressure against which heart must pump
Angina Pectoris Cp a/w anaerobic metabolism from decreased O supply to myocardium
Automaticity Ability of a cardiac muscle cell to contract independently, w/o stimulation
Cardiac Output Amount of blood pumped out of LV each minute
Cardiac Output HR x Stroke volume
Collateral Circulation Additional outgrowth of tiny vessels that supply heart muscle w/ oxygenated blood
CHF Inability of heart to pump sufficient blood to maintain adequate oxygen and nutrients to tissues; results in weakness, sob, edema
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) atherosclerotic plaque deposits lining walls of coronary arteries and narrowing these vessels, causing decreased oxygen to myocardium
ECG or EKG Graphic representation of electrical heart activity
Intermittent Claudication Cramping in lower extremities, especially when walking or with exercise
Ischemia Insufficient blood flow leading to decreased Oxygen supply to tissues causing anaerobic cellular metabolism rather than aerobic metabolism
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve opens backward toward atrium causing regurgitation of blood from ventricle to atrium
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Death of myocardium tissue caused by lack of Oxygen
Myocarditis Inflammatory disorder of heart muscle that is unrelated to CAD or MI
Pericarditis Inflammation of pericardium and/or pericardial sac surrounding heart
Preload Volume of blood returning to heart, creating "stretch" or tension of myocardial fibers at end diastole
Reentry Phenomenon Blockage of an impulse through a bundle branch, causing impulse to retrograde backwards, reenter other side, and cause a premature contraction
Regurgitation Blood flows backward through a valve that should be closed but cannot close completely because of damage or disease
Stenosis Hardening of heart valves causing blood to not flow through effectively
Stroke Volume Amount of blood ejected from LV with each heartbeat
Ventricular Fibrillation Chaotic; irregular quivering of ventricles which is a lethal dysrhythmia requiring immediate defibrillation
p wave before atrial systole
QRS Complex before ventricular systole
T wave before ventricular diastole
Lumen Channel within these vessel through which blood flows
Aterioles Smallest arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
Capillaries Small network of tiny bvs made of very thin wall that allow for diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, CO2, and waste, slow flow due to small diameter
BP Measurement of force exerted by blood against the wall of a BV
Systolic pressure Highest bp reading
Diastolic pressure Lowest bp reading
Stent Stainless steel tube placed within BV or duct to widen the lumen
Bundle Branch Block (BBB) Electrical impulse blocked from traveling down the bundle branches; results in ventricles beating at different rate than atria
Cardiomyopathy Disease of myocardium; can be caused by OH abuse, parasites, viral infection, and CHF
Coronary artery disease Insufficient blood supply to muscle of heart due to obstruction of arteries; may be caused by atherosclerosis and lead to angina pectoris or MI
Endocarditis Inflammation due to bacteria or abnormal immunological response
Flutter Arrhythmia in which atria beat too rapidly but in regular pattern
Heart valve prolapse Cusps of heart valve are too loose allowing regurgitation
Heart valve stenosis Cusps of heart valve are too stiff making it difficult for blood to get through
Tetralogy of Fallot Combination of four congenital abnormalities: pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, improper placement of aorta, and hypertrophy of right ventricle
Aneurysm Weakness in the wall of an artery resulting in localized widening of the artery
Arteriosclerosis Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of walls of arteries
Atherosclerosis Caused by formation of cholesterol plaques (most common form of arteriosclerosis)
Coarctation of aorta Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta
Hypotension Decrease in bp; can occur in shock, infection, cancer, anemia, or as death approaches
Primary htn rt to cardiovascular disease
Secondary htn high blood pressure r/t another disease besides cardiovascular
Patent ductus arteriosus Congenital anomaly in which connection btwn pulmonary artery and aorta fails to close at brith
Raynaud's Phenomenon Periodic ischemic attacks affecting the extremities of body causing them to be cyanotic and very painful; arterial constriction due to extreme cold or stress
ACE Inhibitors Produce vasodilation and decrease BP
ACE Inhibitors Benazepril, Lotensin; Catopril, Capoten
Antiarrhythmic Reduces or prevents cardiac arrhythmias
Antiarrhythmic flecainide, Tambocor; ibutilide, Corvert
Anticoagulant Prevent blood clot formation
Anticoagulant warfarin, Coumadin
Antilipidemic Reduces amount of cholesterol and lipids in blood
Antilipiemic atorvastatin, Lipitor; simvastatin, Zocor
Beta Blockers Treats htn and angina by lowering HR
Beta Blockers meoprolol, Lopressor; propranolol, Inderal
Calcium Channel Blockers Treats htn, angina, and HF by causing heart to beat less forcefully and less often
Calcium Channel Blockers diltiazem, Cardizem; nifedipine, Procardia
Cardiotonic Increases the force of cardiac muscle contraction, treats HF
Cardiotonic digoxin, Lanoxin
Diuretic Increases urine production by kidneys, which work to reduce plasma and therefore blood volume, resulting in lower BP
Diuretic furosemide, Lasix
Thrombolytic Dissolves existing blood clots
Thrombolytic clopidogrel, Plavix; alteplase, Activase
Vasoconstrictor Contracts smooth muscle of BVS thereby raising BP
Vasoconstrictor metaraminol, Aramine
Vasodilator Relaxes smooth muscle of arteries increasing diameter; increases circulation and reduces BP
Vasodilator nitroglycerine, Nitro; isosorbide, Ismo
Inotropic effect A change in contractility of heart
Positive Inotropic agent Increase contractility (epinephrine, NE, thyroid hormone, dopamine)
Negative inotropic agents Decrease contractility (quinidine and beta adrenergic antagonists)
Class I HD Cardiac dx, but no limitations in activity
Class II HD HD w/ slight limitations - DOE, not at rest
Class III HD HD with marked limitation of activity such as ADL
Class IV HD HD, can't do ADL, dyspnea on rest
Sinus Arrhythmia C/B increased vagal tone, digoxin toxicity, or morphine
Sinus Tachycardia Normal response to fever, stress, exercise, hypoxia, anemia, hypovolemia, hyperthyroidism, cardiogenic shock
Sinus Bradycardia C/B increased vagal tone, depressed automaticity, pain, increased intracranial pressure, acidosis, digoxin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers
Sick Sinus Syndrome C/B injury during surgery, fibrosis, digoxin, beta blockers, ca channel blockers
Premature Atrial Contractions C/B strong emotions, excessive OH, tobacco, caffeine, Digoxin toxicity, hypoK/Mg, alkalosis
Atrial Tachycardia or PSVT C/B sympathetic nervous system stimulation, fever, sepsis,hyperthroidism
Atrial Flutter Sympathetic nervous system stimulation, anxiety, OH intake, caffeine
Atrial Fibrillation C/B Thyrotoxicosis, HTN, hyperthyroidism
Junctional Rhythm C/B digoxin toxicity, quinidine rxn, betablocker/Ca channel blocker overdose, hyperK, increased vagal tone, damage to AV node
PVC C/b anxiety, stress, tobacco OH, caffeine, electrolyte imbalance, acidosis, thrombolytic therapy
Ventricular Tachycardia Anorexia, metabolic disorders, drug toxicity
Reentry Phenomenon Blockage of an impulse through a bundle branch, causing impulse to retrograde backwards, reentering other bundle branch and causing a premature beat
Supraventricular Originate in the atria
Sinus Rhythm generates new action potential ~75x/minute with norml range of 60-100 bpm
AV Node generates action potentials when SA node can't; rate of 40-60 bpm
AV Bundle and Purkinje Fibers generate myocardial contractions when SA and AV nodes can't, rate of ~30 bpm
angiotensin II Most potent natural vasoconstrictor; stimulates aldosterone
aldosterone Causes body to retain water increasing blood volume and BP
reflex tachycardia Compensatory response to sudden BP decrease; forces heart to work harder and increases BP
Angiotensin II Raises BP by increasing peripheral resistance
Primary HTN High BP that has no identifiable cause
ACE Inhibitors Reduce BP by lowering levels of aldosterone and angiotensin II
Reflex Tachycardia Condition that occurs when the HR increases due to raid fall in BP created by a drug
Adrenergic Blockers Extension of the fight-or-flight response
Diuretics Act on the kidney are the first line medication for tx of HTN
Sulcus Groove that encircles the heart and separates atria and ventricles
Septum Separates right and left sides of heart
Systemic Circulation Receives O blood and pumps to body
Pulmonary Circulation Pump unO blood to lungs
Atrial Kick additional contribution of blood resulting from atrial contraction
150mL Full ventricle volume
70-80mL Ejected with each contraction
Ejection Fraction Percentage of blood pumped out of heart chamber with each contraction
50% Normal ejection fraction
Pericardial Space Contains serous fluid that acts as lubricant to prevent friction as heart beats
Chordea Tendineae Thick CT strands known as "heart strings" that serve as anchor
Coronary Sinus Largest vein that drains the heart
Positive Chronotropic Effect Increase HR
Negative Chronotropic Effect Decrease HR
Cardiac Muscle Made of smooth and skeletal muscle
Sarcolemma Muscle cells enclosed in; contain mitochondria and myofibrils
Myofibrils Made of sarcomeres
Sarcomeres Basic protein responsible for ctrx
T-Tubules Conduct impulses from sarcolemma surface to sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Stores Calcium
Created by: TedMed