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Section 1 Bones

Axial Skeleton and Basic Bone Info

What cell assists in the building and formation of bones? Osteoblasts
What cell assists in breaking down and cleaning bone? Osteoclasts
What are the two different types of bone? Compact or Dense and Spongy or Cancellous
What is the long hard section of a bone and What type of bone is it consisted of? Diaphysis, Compact or dense bone
What are the proximal and distal ends of a bone and what type of bone are they consisted of? Epiphysis, Spongy or Cancellous bone
What are the Functions of the skeletal system? Supports the Body Protects the Body Produces red blood cells Stores Calcium Provides attachment sites Stores Energy
What are characteristics of the Epiphysis? Proximal and Distal ends of a bone Spongy or Cancellous bone Contains Red Marrow Produces Red Blood Cells
What is Hemo or Hematopoiesis? The production of Red Blood Cells
What are characteristics of the Diaphysis Main part of the bone (Shaft) Dense or Compact Bone Contains Yellow Marrow
What is the Ephipyseal Plate/Line? A section of the bone that was once held together by cartilage and becomes the ephiphyseal line when a person stops growing.
What are the Landmarks of the Diaphysis? Medulary Cavity - Inside of the bone where lipids are stored Periosteum - Silky fiber that covers entire bone except articular cartilage Articular Cartilage - Smooth cartilage that keeps joints moving
What are the 5 Cranial Bones? Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital, Sphenoid (Ethmoid can also be considered cranial bone)
What are the landmarks of the Temporal Bone? Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Mastoid Process - Just Behind Ear Styloid Process - Just Behind Ear in "groove" External Auditory Meatus - "Ear Hole"
What are the landmarks of the Occipital Bone? Foramen Magnum - Hole in posterior inferior skull where spine comes into the brain stem Occipital Condyles - Posterior Occiput articulates to C1 External Occipital Protuberance - "bump" at the back of the head
What are the landmarks of the Sphenoid Bone? Ptyergoid Process or Plate - Close to TMJ Teragoid Medialis attachment site
What are the 4 sinus'? Frontal Sinus, Sphenoid Sinus, Ehtmoid Sinus, Maxillary Sinus
What are the Facial Bones? Zygomatic- Cheek Bone Palatine - Roof of Mouth Maxilla - Upper Jaw Mandible - Lower Jaw Hyoid - Bone in throat Ehtmoid - Bone on each side of nose
Landmark of Zygomatic Bone? Zygomatic Arch
What are the landmarks of the Mandible? Mandibular Angle Mandibular Condyle (helps form TMJ)
How many Spinal Curves are there? 4
What is the Spine Consisted of? (Sections and Number of vertebrae) 7 Cervical Vertebrae (C-Spine) 12 Thorax Vertebrae (T-Spine) 5 Lumbar Vertebrae (L-Spine) 1 Sacrum (4 Give or Take Fused together) 1 Coccyx (about 4 fused together)
What is the name for the first cervical Vertebrae? C-1 or Atlus
What movement occurs at C-1 Up and Down Movement
Where does C-1 attach and what joint forms there? Attatches to Occipital Condyles forms the Occipital-Atlantal joint (OA Joint)
What is the name for the second Cervical Vertebra? C-2 Or Axis
What joint is made up at the articulation of C-1 and C-2? Axial Atlantal Joint (AA Joint)
What movement does the AA joint provide? Rotation and Side to Side Movement
What makes up the medial and lateral sacral crest? Middle Processes and a set of process on each side of the sacrum
What is the Main section of a vertebra? Vertebral body
What is the large hole in the center of a vertebra and what passes through it? Intervertebral or Neural Foramen the Spinal Cord passes through it
What are the two small holes on each side of each vertebra and what passes through it? Intervertebral Foramen nerves branching off spinal cord run through them
What provides attachment for the transverse processes? The Pedicle
What is the smooth surface that provides attachment for the spinous process and what else does it provide? The Lamina it provides the Lamina Groove
What are the slender protrusions on each lateral aspect of each vertebra? Transverse Processes
What are the sharp slender protrusions of the posterior aspect of each vertebra? Spinous Process
The transverse processes of the cervical spine each have this? An anterior and posterior tubercle
When two vertebra come together they form what joint? What landmark provides this joint? Forms the "Z" Joint Vertebral Facet provides the joint
What are two important landmarks of C-1? Atlantal Condyles Odontoid Process or Dens (Anterior Aspect)
What additional joint can be found at the sacrum? Sacroiliac Joint (SI Joint)
Where is C-7? Base of the cervical spine just before the large T-1. (can be palpated by flexing placing fingers at base of C-spine and extending, c-1 should disappear, if it doesn't you are on T-1!!)
What is the cushion between each vertebra? Intervertebral Disk
What makes up the inside of each intervertebral disk? Nucleus Pulposa or Pulposus
What makes up the outside of each intervertebral disk? Annulus Fibrosa or Fibrosus
What is the Notch at the superior aspect of the Sternum? Suprasternal or Jugular Notch
What is the superior aspect of the Sternum? Manubrium
What is the middle and main section of the Sternum? Body
what is the sharp process at the end of the Sternum? Xiphoid Process
How many Ribs are there? 12
How many true ribs are there? 7
How many false ribs are there? 3
How many floating ribs are there? 2
Describe a true rib. One of the first 7 ribs where each end of the ribs have full attachment at both the vertebra and sternum.
Describe a false rib. Ribs 8-10 where each rib has its own posterior attachment but shares costal cartilage with another rib at the anterior attachment.
Describe a floating Rib. Ribs 11 and 12 that only have a posterior attachment and no anterior attachment
What is special about the Hyoid bone? It does not articulate with any other bone but is held with muscle and ligaments
A posterior rib attachment spans how many vertebrae? 2
What forms at the first rib attachment site at the posterior aspect? Costotransverse Joint
What is the first posterior attachment site for each rib? Transverse Process
What is the second posterior attachment site for each rib? Intervertebral Disk
What forms at the second rib posterior attachment site? Costovertebral Joint or Rib Facet
What is the lateral joint of the clavicle? Acromioclavicular Joint
What is the medial joint of the clavicle Sternoclavicular Joint
Created by: papillon.belle