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Biology: Chapter 121

Chapter 12.1 Vocabulary

Sex Chromosome contains genes that determine the sex of an individual
Autosome the remaining chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
Sex-Linked Trait refers to a trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
Linked Gene pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together
Chromosome Map a diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome
Map Unit a frequency of crossing-over of 1 percent
Germ-Cell Mutation a mutation, a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA model, that occurs in an organism's gametes
Somatic-Cell Mutation a mutation that occurs in an organism's body cells and can therefore affect the organism
Lethal Mutation mutations that can cause death, often before birth
Deletion a loss of a piece of a chromosome due to breakage
Inversion when a chromosomal segment breaks off, slips around backward, and reattaches
Translocation when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
Nondisjunction a chromosome fails to separate from its homologue during meiosis
Point Mutation a change that occurs within a single gene or other segment of DNA on a chromosome
Substitution when one nucleotide replaces another; the amino acid can be changed
Frameshift Mutation can result as a loss of a nucleotide; when all amino acids downstream from the lost nucleotide change
Insertion Mutation when one or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
Created by: truongm19