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Chapter 15

Evolution

QuestionAnswer
What was " Linnaeus' " beliefs about nature? Fixity of species. Each species had.. - an ideal structure and function - a place in the "scala naturae" also know as the ladder of life. ~ simple being occupy lower rungs; complex and spirtual, such as, Humans and God occupy top rungs
What is "Linnaeus" known for? -Developing the bionomial system of nomenclature (such as the term "homo-sapians") -classifications of life.
What is the definition of Evolution? Species rise, change and become extinct due to nature,not super natual forces.
What are Extants? Species who still have family members alive as oppose to beng extinct.
What is "Cuvier" known for? - First to suggest that some species had become extinct. (this was propsed only from having fossil records - Strong avocate of "fixity" until his reseach revealed fossil variations. - Founded the science of paleontology
Facts about George-Louis Leclerc aka "Count Buffon" -wrote a 44 vol. book describing all known plants & animals. -provided evidence of evolution & propose causes such as, environmental influence & struggle for existance. -support of evolution wavered, believed in special creation and species fixity.
Facts about "Erasmas Darwin" -suggested the possibily of evolution, based his conclusion on the changes in animals durning development, animal breeding by humans, and the presence of [Vestigial Structures]
What is the definition of Vestigial Structures? anatomical structures that functioned in ancestors but has lost some/all of thier functions in descendants
What is Paleontology? The study of fossils.
Who eventually said... "sudden changes in fossil variations could be explained by a series of local catatrophes or mass extictions followed by the repopulation of species from surrounding areas" Cuvier eventually said this!
Many of Cuvier's followers believed there had been world wide catastrophes and God created new sets of species to repopulate the world. The word to describe this is... Catastrophism
What is Lamark known for? -Linked diversity w/ invironmental adaptation. -Suggested that more complex organisms are desendants of less complex organisms. ("they become more complex by striving for perfection") -Famous for the giraff illustation.
What did Lyell write? He wrote "Principles of Geology"
What did Lyell makes popular in his book? Hutton's theory that the earth had a slow, uniform geological change.
What theory did Lyell produce about nature? Theory of Uniformitarianism.
What is the definition of Uniformitarianism? The natural processes witnessed today are the same processes witnessed in the pass.
What did Malthus write? An Essay on the Principles of Population.
What did Malthus propose? The size of human population is limited only by resources such as food, water, and shelter...Population grow geometrically but resources grow linearly.
Who's idea did Darwin use to formulate his idea of Natural Selection? Dawin used Malthus' idea.
Created by: Shirone