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Fluid and elect.

Key words ch 11&12

Acidosis An acid-base imbalance in which blood pH is below normal.
Acids A substance that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Strength is measured by how easily it releases hydrogen ions in a solution.
Alkalosis Acid-base imbalance in which blood pH is above normal.
Anions Ion that has a negative charge.
Base A substance that binds (reduces) free hydrogen ions in a solution. Strong ones bind hydrogen ions easily; weak ones bind less readily.
Cations Ion that has a positive charge.
Dehydration Fluid intake less than what is needed to meet the body's fluid needs.
Diffusion The spontaneous, free movement of particles (solute) across a permeable membrane down a concentration gradient; that is, from and area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Disequilibrium A condition in which the hydrostatic pressure is not the same in the two fluid spaces on either side of a permeable membrane.
Edema Tissue swelling as a result of the accumulation of excessive fluid in the interstitial spaces.
Electrolytes A substance in body fluids that carries an electrical charge. Also called an "ion."
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) The portion of total body water (about one third) that is in the space outside the cells. The space also includes interstitial fluid, blood, lymph, bone and connective tissue water and the transcellular fluids.
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion across a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a transport system or membrane-altering system. Also called "facilitated transport."
Facilitated transport Facilitated diffusion
Filtration The movement of fluid through a cell or blood vessel membrane because of hydrostatic pressure differences on both sides of the membrane.
Fluid Overload An excess of body fluid. Also called "overhydration."
Hemoconcentration Elevated plasma levels of hemoglobin, hematocririt, serum osmolarity, glucose, protein, blood urea nitrogen and electrolytes that occur when only the water is lost and other substances remain.
Hemodilution Excessive water in the vascular space.
Homeostasis The narrow range of normal conditions (temp, blood electrolyte values, blood pH, blood volume) in the human body; the tendency to maintain a constant balance in normal body states.
Homeostatic Mechanism A safeguard or control mechanism within the human body that prevents dangerous changes.
Hydrostatic pressure The force of the weight of water molecules pressing against the confining walls of a space.
Hypernatremia An excessive amount of sodium in the blood.
Hyperosmotic "Hypertonic" Describes fluids with osmolarities (solute concentrations) greater than 300 mOsm/L; have a greater osmotic pressure than isomotic fluids and tend to pull water from fluid space into the fluid space until an osmotic balance occurs.
Hypercapnia Increased arterial carbon dioxide levels.
Hyperkalemia Elevated level of potassium in the blood.
Hypermagnesemia Serum magnesium level above 2.1 mEq/L
Hyperphosphatemia Serum phosphorus level above 4.5 mEq/L
Hypertonic Hyperosmotic
Hyperventilation A state of increased rate and depth of breathing.
Hypervolemia Increased plama volume; or fluid excess.
Hhypocalcemia A total serum calcium level below 9.0 mg/dL or 2.25 mmol/L
Hypokalemia A decreased serum potassium level; a common electrolyte imbalance.
Hyponatremia A serum sodium level below 136 mEq/L (mmol/L)
Hypo-osmotic "Hypotonic" Describes fluds with osmolarities of less than 270 mOsm/L. Lower osmotic pressure than isomotic fluids.
Hypotonic Hypo-osmotic
Hypoventilation A state in which gas exchange at the alveolar-capillary membrane is inadequate so that too little oxygen reaches the blood and carbon dioxide is retained.
Hypovolemia Abnormally decreased volume of circulating fluid in the body; fluid deficit.
Hypoxemia (Hypoxemic) Decreased blood oxygen levels; hypoxia
Impermeable Not porous.
Insensible water loss Water loss from skin, lungs and stool that cannot be controlled.
Interstitial fluid A portion of the extracellular fluid that is between cells, sometimes called the "third space."
Intracellular fluid (ICF) Portion of the total body water (about two thirds) that is found inside the cells.
Ions A substance found in the body fluids that carries an electrical charge. Also called "electrolytes."
Irritability An over-response of stimuli.
Isosmotic Having the same osmotic pressures. Also called "isotonic" or "normotonic."
Isotonic Isomotic
Kussmaul respiration A type of breathing that occurs when excess acids caused by the absence of insulin increase hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. Increase in rate and depth of Resp in an attempt to excrete more carbon dioxide and acid.
Magnesium A mineral that forms a cation when dissolved in water.
Normotonic Isosmotic
Obligatory urine output The minimum amount of urine per day needed to dissolve and excrete toxic waste products.
Orthostatic hypotension "postural hypotension" Decrease in blood pressure that occurs during the first few seconds to minutes after changing from a sitting or lying position to a standing position.
Osmolality The number of milliosmoles in a kilogram of solution.
Osmosis The movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane (a membrane that allow the solvent but not the solute to pass through) from a lesser to greater concentration.
Paralytic ileus Absence of peristalsis.
Paresthesia Abnormal or unusual nerve sensations to touch, such as tingling and burning.
Permeable The quality of being porous.
pH A measure of the free hydrogen ion level in body fluid.
Pores Openings or spaces.
Postural hypotension Orthostatic hypotension
Rhabdomyolysis The breakdown or disintegration of muscle tissue; associated with excertion of myoglobin in the urine.
Sodium A mineral that is the major cation in the extracellular fluid and maintains extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolarity.
Solutes A particle dissolved or suspended in the water portion (solvent) of body fluids; a solution consists of a solute and a solvent.
Solvent Water portion of fluids.
Tetany Continuous contractions of muscle groups; hyperexcitability of nerves and muscles.
Transcellular fluids Any of the fluids in special body spaces, including cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid and pleural fluid.
Created by: morgancoady