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Rocks and Minerals

TermDefinition
Cleavage a sharp division; a split
Crystal a piece of a homogeneous solid substance having a natural geometrically regular form with symmetrically arranged plane faces
Fracture the cracking or breaking of a hard object or material
Gem a precious or semiprecious stone
Hardness the quality or condition of being hard
Luster a gentle sheen or soft glow, especially that of a partly reflective surface
Magma hot fluid or semi-fluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling
Mineral a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence
Ore a naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be profitably extracted
Silicate a salt in which the anion contains both silicon and oxygen
Specific Gravity the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas
Streak a long, thin line or mark of a different substance or color from its surroundings
Basaltic a dark, fine-grained, igneous rock consisting mostly of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene, and sometimes olivine
Cementation the binding together of particles or other things by cement
Compaction In sedimentology compaction refers to the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading. This forms part of the process of lithification.
Extrusive relating to or denoting rock that has been extruded at the earth's surface as lava or other volcanic deposits
Foliated decorated with leaves or leaflike motifs
Granitic a usually light-colored, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of quartz, orthoclase feldspar, sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, and micas
Igneous Rock one of the three main rock types, it is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava
Intrusive causing disruption or annoyance through being unwelcome or uninvited
Lava hot molten or semifluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this
Metamorphic Rock a type of rock which has been changed by extreme heat and pressure
Non-Foliated metamorphic rocks that are formed around igneous intrusions where the temperatures are high but the pressures are relatively low and equal in all directions
Rock the solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil or oceans
Rock Cycle an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust
Sediment matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid
Sedimentary Rock rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment
Created by: 3169733