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Earth Sci - Chap 8


seismology the study of earthquakes
deformation change in the shape of a rock in response to stress; plastic deformation does not cause earthquakes, elastic deformation does cause earthquakes
elastic rebound sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its original shape
seismic waves waves of energy that travel through the Earth; seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface are called surface waves
P waves waves that travel through solids, liquids and gases - the are the fastest seismic waves (also called primary waves)
S waves seismic wave that causes particles of rock to move in a side-to-side direction - second fastest seismic waves (also called secondary waves)
seismograph instruments located at or near the surface of the Earth that record seismic waves
seismogram tracing of earthquake motion - created by seismograph
epicenter point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point (focus)
focus point along a fault at which the first motion of an earthquake occurs
magnitude measure of the strength of an earthquake; seismologists use the Richter magnitude scale
intensity measure of the degree to which the earthquake is felt by people and the amount of damage caused by an earthquake. Seismologists use the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale to measure
gap hypothesis states that sections of active faults that have had relatively few earthquakes are likely to be sites of strong earthquakes in the future.
seismic gap areas along a fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred.
Created by: msparks