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Unit5 Minerals&rocks

TermDefinition
ion one of the electrically charged particles formed in a gas by electric discharge or the like.
crystal a solid body having a characteristic internal structure and enclosed by symmetrically arranged plane surfaces, intersecting at definite and characteristic angles.
inorganic not having the structure or organization characteristic of living bodies
mineral any of a class of substances occurring in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances, as quartz or feldspar, of definite chemical composition and usually of definite crystal structure.
silicates any of the largest group of mineral compounds, as quartz, beryl, garnet, feldspar, mica, and various kinds of clay, consisting of SiO 2 or SiO 4 groupings and one or more metallic ions, with some forms containing hydrogen.
cleavage the tendency of crystals, certain minerals, rocks, etc., to break in preferred directions so as to yield more or less smooth surfaces
density he state or quality of being dense; compactness; closely set or crowded condition
fracture the act of breaking; state of being broken
hardness the comparative ability of a substance to scratch or be scratched by another
luster the state or quality of shining by reflecting light; glitter, sparkle, sheen, or gloss
streak the line of powder obtained by scratching a mineral or rubbing it upon a hard, rough white surface, often differing in color from the mineral in the mass, and serving as an important distinguishing character
lava the molten, fluid rock that issues from a volcano or volcanic vent
magma molten material beneath or within the earth's crust, from which igneous rock is formed.
rock mineral matter of variable composition, consolidated or unconsolidated, assembled in masses or considerable quantities in nature, as by the action of heat or water
vein a body or mass of igneous rock, deposited mineral, or the like occupying a crevice or fissure in rock; lode
gemstone a precious or semiprecious stone that can be cut and polished for use as a gem
ore a mineral or natural product serving as a source of some nonmetallic substance, as sulfur
ore deposit A mineral or an aggregate of minerals from which a valuable constituent, especially a metal, can be profitably mined or extracted
crystallization to form into crystals; cause to assume crystalline form
igneous rock Rocks formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten materials. Igneous rocks can form beneath the Earth's surface, or at its surface, as lava
metamorphic rock Rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase
metamorphism a change in the structure or constitution of a rock due to natural agencies, as pressure and heat, especially when the rock becomes harder and more completely crystalline
precipitate to fall to the earth's surface as a condensed form of water; to rain, snow, hail, drizzle, etc
rock cycle a continuous process by which rocks are created, changed from one form to another, destroyed, and then formed again
sediment mineral or organic matter deposited by water, air, or ice
sedimentary rock Rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment, especially sediment transported by water (rivers, lakes, and oceans), ice (glaciers), and wind. Sedimentary rocks are often deposited in layers, and frequently contain fossils
sedimentation to deposit as sediment
extrusive noting or pertaining to a class of igneous rocks that have been forced out in a molten or plastic condition upon the surface of the earth.
intrusive having been forced between preexisting rocks or rock layers while in a molten or plastic condition. noting or pertaining to plutonic rocks.
volcanic rock extrusive igneous rock solidified near or on the surface of the Earth
cementation the heating of two substances in contact in order to effect some change in one of them, especially, the formation of steel by heating iron in powdered charcoal.
lithification the process or processes by which unconsolidated materials are converted into coherent solid rock, as by compaction or cementation
organic noting or pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon
foliation a form of lamination produced in rocks by metamorphism
Created by: 3084827