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Biology CH 11

homozygous , you've got a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait. If both your alleles that determine blood type are O, — and you've got type O blood.
heterozygous refers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive — they're different. Like all words with the prefix hetero, this has to do with things that are different — specifically genes.
punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C. Punnett, who devised the approach. The diagram is used to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
tetrad a group or set of four.
phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
homologous (of chromosomes) pairing at meiosis and having the same structural features and pattern of genes.
karyotype the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
probability the extent to which something is probable; the likelihood of something happening or being the case.
meiosis cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
gene map a record of the DNA sequence of a gene.
crossing over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
independent assortment formation of random combinations of chromosomes in meiosis and of genes on different pairs of homologous chromosomes by the passage according to the laws of probability of one of each diploid pair of homologous chromosomes
incomplete dominance refers to a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype.
haploid (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
diploid (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Created by: Luke Kangas