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LS LSAF Chapter 4

Mitosis, Meiosis

TermDefinition
Mitosis The division of a nucleus during asexual reproduction.
Prophase The first stage of mitosis. Nuclear membrane disappears. Chromatin is visible. Centrioles migrate to opposite sides of nucleus. Spindle forms.
Metaphase The second phase of mitosis. Chromatin "x"s line up along the middle of the nuclear region; attached to spindle fibers.
Anaphase The third phase of mitosis. Chromatin migrates toward centrioles along spindle fibers.
Telophase The final step of mitosis. Nuclear membrane reappears. Chromatin becomes invisible. Centrioles and fibers dissolve. Cytokinesis.
Cytokinesis The division of cytoplasm at the end of mitosis. In plants, a cell plate is created which will become cell wall when division is complete.
Sexual Reproduction Reproduction which involves an exchange of DNA. Daughter cells are morphologically unique from parent cells.
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction which involves no exchange of DNA. Daughter cells are morphologically identical to parent cell.
Morphology Refers to the study of shape, form, genetic makeup, appearance, etc.
S phase "Stationary" phase. Cells carry out all life processes except reproduction. Near the end of the S phase, nuclear material is replicated.
G1 Phase "Growth" phase. Cells create many organelles after mitosis in order to grow to normal size.
G2 Phase "Growth" phase. Cells actively create many organelles before mitosis in order to prepare for division.
Somatic Cells Cells that have a diploid number of chromosomes.
Gametes Cells that are haploid. Gametes combine in fertilization to form a zygote.
Fertilization The combination of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote.
Meiosis The process by which chromosome number if cut in half. Diploid cells become haploid by the process of meiosis.
Budding A form of asexual reproduction in which an identical copy of an organism "buds" from some part of the parent structure.
Binary Fission A form of asexual reproduction in which a single cell divides to become two.
Regeneration A form of asexual reproduction in which an organism can re-create missing parts. Some creatures, like sea stars, can be cut into many pieces capable of growing into complete new stars.
Centrosome Organelle closely associated with the nucleus. Contains centrioles. Only found in animal cells.
Centrioles Produce spindle during mitosis.
Centromere The center point of chromosome X's seen during metaphase of mitosis. Chromosomes attach to spindle at the centromere.
Created by: MrGross