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LS LSAF Chapter 4

Mitosis, Meiosis

Mitosis The division of a nucleus during asexual reproduction.
Prophase (Mitosis) The first stage of mitosis. Nuclear membrane disappears. Chromatin is visible. Centrioles migrate to opposite sides of nucleus. Spindle forms.
Metaphase (Mitosis) The second phase of mitosis. Chromatin "x"s line up along the middle of the nuclear region; attached to spindle fibers.
Anaphase (Mitosis) The third phase of mitosis. Chromatin migrates toward centrioles along spindle fibers.
Telophase (Mitosis) The final step of mitosis. Nuclear membrane reappears. Chromatin becomes invisible. Centrioles and fibers dissolve. Cytokinesis.
Cytokinesis The division of cytoplasm at the end of mitosis. In plants, a cell plate is created which will become cell wall when division is complete.
Sexual Reproduction Reproduction which involves an exchange of DNA. Daughter cells are morphologically unique from parent cells.
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction which involves no exchange of DNA. Daughter cells are morphologically identical to parent cell.
Morphology Refers to the study of shape, form, genetic makeup, appearance, etc of an organism.
S phase "Stationary" phase. Cells carry out all life processes except reproduction. Near the end of the S phase, nuclear material is replicated.
G1 Phase "Growth" phase. Cells create many organelles after mitosis in order to grow to normal size.
G2 Phase "Growth" phase. Cells actively create many organelles before mitosis in order to prepare for division.
Somatic Cells Cells that have a diploid number of chromosomes.
Gametes Cells that are haploid. Gametes combine in fertilization to form a zygote. Also known as sperm and egg cells.
Fertilization The combination of haploid gametes to form a diploid zygote.
Meiosis The process by which chromosome number is cut in half. Diploid cells become haploid by the process of meiosis. Gametes are produced.
Budding A form of asexual reproduction in which an identical copy of an organism "buds" from some part of the parent structure.
Binary Fission A form of asexual reproduction in which a single cell divides to become two.
Regeneration A form of asexual reproduction in which an organism can re-create missing parts. Some creatures, like sea stars, can be cut into many pieces capable of growing into complete new stars.
Centrosome Organelle closely associated with the nucleus. Contains centrioles. Only found in animal cells.
Centrioles Produce spindle during mitosis.
Centromere The center point of chromosome X's seen during metaphase of mitosis. Chromosomes attach to spindle at the centromere.
Zygote A fertilized egg
Haploid Containing one half the full complement of DNA
Diploid Containing the full complement of DNA. Two forms for each gene. Homologous pairs.
Independent Assortment (Independent Orientation) During anaphase I, chromosomes split to opposite ends of the cell independent of each other. The number of possible assortments is given by 2 to the "n" power, where "n" is the number of chromosomes. Gives rise to genetic variation in gametes.
Crossing Over During prophase I, DNA is shared between replicated chromosomes. This gives rise to genetic variation in gametes.
Created by: MrGross