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Biology Vocab

Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Somatic Cell Cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes.
Gamete Sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell.
Homologous Chromosome Chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ.
Autosome Chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism.
Sex Chromosome Chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics.
Sexual Reproduction Process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced.
Fertilization Fusion of an egg and sperm cell.
Diploid Cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm.
Haploid Cell that has only one copy of each chromosome.
Meiosis From of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
Gametogenesis Process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes.
Sperm Male gamete.
Egg Female gamete.
Polar Body Haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate.
Trait Characteristic that is inherited.
Genetics Study of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms.
Purebred Type of organism whose ancestors are genetically uniform.
Cross Mating of two organisms.
Law of Segregation Mendel's first law, stating that (1) organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and (2) organisms donate only o copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation.
Gene Specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein.
Allele Any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome.
Homozygous Characteristics of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids.
Heterozygous Characteristic of having two different alleles that appear at the same locus of sister chromatids.
Genome Al of an organism's genetic material.
Genotype Collection of all of an organism's genetic information that codes for traits.
Phenotype Collection of all of an organism's physical characteristics.
Dominant Allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism's genotype.
Recessive Allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype.
Punnett Square Model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross, or mating.
Monohybrid Cross Cross , or mating, between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits.
Testcross Cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive phenotype.
Dihybrid Cross Cross, or mating, between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits.
Law of Independent Assortment Mendel's second law, stating that allele pairs separate from one another during gamete formation.
Probability Likelihood that a particular event will happen.
Crossing Over Exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis 1.
Genetic Linkage Tendency for genes located close together on the same chromosome to be inherited together.
Created by: 58knasims